Free Electrons

Embedded Linux Experts

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
/*
 *  linux/fs/block_dev.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992  Linus Torvalds
 *  Copyright (C) 2001  Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de> SuSE
 */

#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/fcntl.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/kmod.h>
#include <linux/major.h>
#include <linux/device_cgroup.h>
#include <linux/highmem.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/blkpg.h>
#include <linux/magic.h>
#include <linux/buffer_head.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/mpage.h>
#include <linux/mount.h>
#include <linux/uio.h>
#include <linux/namei.h>
#include <linux/log2.h>
#include <linux/cleancache.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include "internal.h"

struct bdev_inode {
	struct block_device bdev;
	struct inode vfs_inode;
};

static const struct address_space_operations def_blk_aops;

static inline struct bdev_inode *BDEV_I(struct inode *inode)
{
	return container_of(inode, struct bdev_inode, vfs_inode);
}

inline struct block_device *I_BDEV(struct inode *inode)
{
	return &BDEV_I(inode)->bdev;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(I_BDEV);

/*
 * Move the inode from its current bdi to a new bdi. If the inode is dirty we
 * need to move it onto the dirty list of @dst so that the inode is always on
 * the right list.
 */
static void bdev_inode_switch_bdi(struct inode *inode,
			struct backing_dev_info *dst)
{
	struct backing_dev_info *old = inode->i_data.backing_dev_info;

	if (unlikely(dst == old))		/* deadlock avoidance */
		return;
	bdi_lock_two(&old->wb, &dst->wb);
	spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
	inode->i_data.backing_dev_info = dst;
	if (inode->i_state & I_DIRTY)
		list_move(&inode->i_wb_list, &dst->wb.b_dirty);
	spin_unlock(&inode->i_lock);
	spin_unlock(&old->wb.list_lock);
	spin_unlock(&dst->wb.list_lock);
}

sector_t blkdev_max_block(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	sector_t retval = ~((sector_t)0);
	loff_t sz = i_size_read(bdev->bd_inode);

	if (sz) {
		unsigned int size = block_size(bdev);
		unsigned int sizebits = blksize_bits(size);
		retval = (sz >> sizebits);
	}
	return retval;
}

/* Kill _all_ buffers and pagecache , dirty or not.. */
void kill_bdev(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = bdev->bd_inode->i_mapping;

	if (mapping->nrpages == 0)
		return;

	invalidate_bh_lrus();
	truncate_inode_pages(mapping, 0);
}	
EXPORT_SYMBOL(kill_bdev);

/* Invalidate clean unused buffers and pagecache. */
void invalidate_bdev(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = bdev->bd_inode->i_mapping;

	if (mapping->nrpages == 0)
		return;

	invalidate_bh_lrus();
	lru_add_drain_all();	/* make sure all lru add caches are flushed */
	invalidate_mapping_pages(mapping, 0, -1);
	/* 99% of the time, we don't need to flush the cleancache on the bdev.
	 * But, for the strange corners, lets be cautious
	 */
	cleancache_invalidate_inode(mapping);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(invalidate_bdev);

int set_blocksize(struct block_device *bdev, int size)
{
	/* Size must be a power of two, and between 512 and PAGE_SIZE */
	if (size > PAGE_SIZE || size < 512 || !is_power_of_2(size))
		return -EINVAL;

	/* Size cannot be smaller than the size supported by the device */
	if (size < bdev_logical_block_size(bdev))
		return -EINVAL;

	/* Don't change the size if it is same as current */
	if (bdev->bd_block_size != size) {
		sync_blockdev(bdev);
		bdev->bd_block_size = size;
		bdev->bd_inode->i_blkbits = blksize_bits(size);
		kill_bdev(bdev);
	}
	return 0;
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(set_blocksize);

int sb_set_blocksize(struct super_block *sb, int size)
{
	if (set_blocksize(sb->s_bdev, size))
		return 0;
	/* If we get here, we know size is power of two
	 * and it's value is between 512 and PAGE_SIZE */
	sb->s_blocksize = size;
	sb->s_blocksize_bits = blksize_bits(size);
	return sb->s_blocksize;
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(sb_set_blocksize);

int sb_min_blocksize(struct super_block *sb, int size)
{
	int minsize = bdev_logical_block_size(sb->s_bdev);
	if (size < minsize)
		size = minsize;
	return sb_set_blocksize(sb, size);
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(sb_min_blocksize);

static int
blkdev_get_block(struct inode *inode, sector_t iblock,
		struct buffer_head *bh, int create)
{
	if (iblock >= blkdev_max_block(I_BDEV(inode))) {
		if (create)
			return -EIO;

		/*
		 * for reads, we're just trying to fill a partial page.
		 * return a hole, they will have to call get_block again
		 * before they can fill it, and they will get -EIO at that
		 * time
		 */
		return 0;
	}
	bh->b_bdev = I_BDEV(inode);
	bh->b_blocknr = iblock;
	set_buffer_mapped(bh);
	return 0;
}

static int
blkdev_get_blocks(struct inode *inode, sector_t iblock,
		struct buffer_head *bh, int create)
{
	sector_t end_block = blkdev_max_block(I_BDEV(inode));
	unsigned long max_blocks = bh->b_size >> inode->i_blkbits;

	if ((iblock + max_blocks) > end_block) {
		max_blocks = end_block - iblock;
		if ((long)max_blocks <= 0) {
			if (create)
				return -EIO;	/* write fully beyond EOF */
			/*
			 * It is a read which is fully beyond EOF.  We return
			 * a !buffer_mapped buffer
			 */
			max_blocks = 0;
		}
	}

	bh->b_bdev = I_BDEV(inode);
	bh->b_blocknr = iblock;
	bh->b_size = max_blocks << inode->i_blkbits;
	if (max_blocks)
		set_buffer_mapped(bh);
	return 0;
}

static ssize_t
blkdev_direct_IO(int rw, struct kiocb *iocb, const struct iovec *iov,
			loff_t offset, unsigned long nr_segs)
{
	struct file *file = iocb->ki_filp;
	struct inode *inode = file->f_mapping->host;

	return __blockdev_direct_IO(rw, iocb, inode, I_BDEV(inode), iov, offset,
				    nr_segs, blkdev_get_blocks, NULL, NULL, 0);
}

int __sync_blockdev(struct block_device *bdev, int wait)
{
	if (!bdev)
		return 0;
	if (!wait)
		return filemap_flush(bdev->bd_inode->i_mapping);
	return filemap_write_and_wait(bdev->bd_inode->i_mapping);
}

/*
 * Write out and wait upon all the dirty data associated with a block
 * device via its mapping.  Does not take the superblock lock.
 */
int sync_blockdev(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	return __sync_blockdev(bdev, 1);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(sync_blockdev);

/*
 * Write out and wait upon all dirty data associated with this
 * device.   Filesystem data as well as the underlying block
 * device.  Takes the superblock lock.
 */
int fsync_bdev(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	struct super_block *sb = get_super(bdev);
	if (sb) {
		int res = sync_filesystem(sb);
		drop_super(sb);
		return res;
	}
	return sync_blockdev(bdev);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(fsync_bdev);

/**
 * freeze_bdev  --  lock a filesystem and force it into a consistent state
 * @bdev:	blockdevice to lock
 *
 * If a superblock is found on this device, we take the s_umount semaphore
 * on it to make sure nobody unmounts until the snapshot creation is done.
 * The reference counter (bd_fsfreeze_count) guarantees that only the last
 * unfreeze process can unfreeze the frozen filesystem actually when multiple
 * freeze requests arrive simultaneously. It counts up in freeze_bdev() and
 * count down in thaw_bdev(). When it becomes 0, thaw_bdev() will unfreeze
 * actually.
 */
struct super_block *freeze_bdev(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	struct super_block *sb;
	int error = 0;

	mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
	if (++bdev->bd_fsfreeze_count > 1) {
		/*
		 * We don't even need to grab a reference - the first call
		 * to freeze_bdev grab an active reference and only the last
		 * thaw_bdev drops it.
		 */
		sb = get_super(bdev);
		drop_super(sb);
		mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
		return sb;
	}

	sb = get_active_super(bdev);
	if (!sb)
		goto out;
	error = freeze_super(sb);
	if (error) {
		deactivate_super(sb);
		bdev->bd_fsfreeze_count--;
		mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
		return ERR_PTR(error);
	}
	deactivate_super(sb);
 out:
	sync_blockdev(bdev);
	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
	return sb;	/* thaw_bdev releases s->s_umount */
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(freeze_bdev);

/**
 * thaw_bdev  -- unlock filesystem
 * @bdev:	blockdevice to unlock
 * @sb:		associated superblock
 *
 * Unlocks the filesystem and marks it writeable again after freeze_bdev().
 */
int thaw_bdev(struct block_device *bdev, struct super_block *sb)
{
	int error = -EINVAL;

	mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
	if (!bdev->bd_fsfreeze_count)
		goto out;

	error = 0;
	if (--bdev->bd_fsfreeze_count > 0)
		goto out;

	if (!sb)
		goto out;

	error = thaw_super(sb);
	if (error) {
		bdev->bd_fsfreeze_count++;
		mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
		return error;
	}
out:
	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
	return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(thaw_bdev);

static int blkdev_writepage(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
	return block_write_full_page(page, blkdev_get_block, wbc);
}

static int blkdev_readpage(struct file * file, struct page * page)
{
	return block_read_full_page(page, blkdev_get_block);
}

static int blkdev_write_begin(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
			struct page **pagep, void **fsdata)
{
	return block_write_begin(mapping, pos, len, flags, pagep,
				 blkdev_get_block);
}

static int blkdev_write_end(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
			struct page *page, void *fsdata)
{
	int ret;
	ret = block_write_end(file, mapping, pos, len, copied, page, fsdata);

	unlock_page(page);
	page_cache_release(page);

	return ret;
}

/*
 * private llseek:
 * for a block special file file->f_path.dentry->d_inode->i_size is zero
 * so we compute the size by hand (just as in block_read/write above)
 */
static loff_t block_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin)
{
	struct inode *bd_inode = file->f_mapping->host;
	loff_t size;
	loff_t retval;

	mutex_lock(&bd_inode->i_mutex);
	size = i_size_read(bd_inode);

	retval = -EINVAL;
	switch (origin) {
		case SEEK_END:
			offset += size;
			break;
		case SEEK_CUR:
			offset += file->f_pos;
		case SEEK_SET:
			break;
		default:
			goto out;
	}
	if (offset >= 0 && offset <= size) {
		if (offset != file->f_pos) {
			file->f_pos = offset;
		}
		retval = offset;
	}
out:
	mutex_unlock(&bd_inode->i_mutex);
	return retval;
}
	
int blkdev_fsync(struct file *filp, loff_t start, loff_t end, int datasync)
{
	struct inode *bd_inode = filp->f_mapping->host;
	struct block_device *bdev = I_BDEV(bd_inode);
	int error;
	
	error = filemap_write_and_wait_range(filp->f_mapping, start, end);
	if (error)
		return error;

	/*
	 * There is no need to serialise calls to blkdev_issue_flush with
	 * i_mutex and doing so causes performance issues with concurrent
	 * O_SYNC writers to a block device.
	 */
	error = blkdev_issue_flush(bdev, GFP_KERNEL, NULL);
	if (error == -EOPNOTSUPP)
		error = 0;

	return error;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(blkdev_fsync);

/*
 * pseudo-fs
 */

static  __cacheline_aligned_in_smp DEFINE_SPINLOCK(bdev_lock);
static struct kmem_cache * bdev_cachep __read_mostly;

static struct inode *bdev_alloc_inode(struct super_block *sb)
{
	struct bdev_inode *ei = kmem_cache_alloc(bdev_cachep, GFP_KERNEL);
	if (!ei)
		return NULL;
	return &ei->vfs_inode;
}

static void bdev_i_callback(struct rcu_head *head)
{
	struct inode *inode = container_of(head, struct inode, i_rcu);
	struct bdev_inode *bdi = BDEV_I(inode);

	kmem_cache_free(bdev_cachep, bdi);
}

static void bdev_destroy_inode(struct inode *inode)
{
	call_rcu(&inode->i_rcu, bdev_i_callback);
}

static void init_once(void *foo)
{
	struct bdev_inode *ei = (struct bdev_inode *) foo;
	struct block_device *bdev = &ei->bdev;

	memset(bdev, 0, sizeof(*bdev));
	mutex_init(&bdev->bd_mutex);
	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdev->bd_inodes);
	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdev->bd_list);
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdev->bd_holder_disks);
#endif
	inode_init_once(&ei->vfs_inode);
	/* Initialize mutex for freeze. */
	mutex_init(&bdev->bd_fsfreeze_mutex);
}

static inline void __bd_forget(struct inode *inode)
{
	list_del_init(&inode->i_devices);
	inode->i_bdev = NULL;
	inode->i_mapping = &inode->i_data;
}

static void bdev_evict_inode(struct inode *inode)
{
	struct block_device *bdev = &BDEV_I(inode)->bdev;
	struct list_head *p;
	truncate_inode_pages(&inode->i_data, 0);
	invalidate_inode_buffers(inode); /* is it needed here? */
	end_writeback(inode);
	spin_lock(&bdev_lock);
	while ( (p = bdev->bd_inodes.next) != &bdev->bd_inodes ) {
		__bd_forget(list_entry(p, struct inode, i_devices));
	}
	list_del_init(&bdev->bd_list);
	spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
}

static const struct super_operations bdev_sops = {
	.statfs = simple_statfs,
	.alloc_inode = bdev_alloc_inode,
	.destroy_inode = bdev_destroy_inode,
	.drop_inode = generic_delete_inode,
	.evict_inode = bdev_evict_inode,
};

static struct dentry *bd_mount(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
	int flags, const char *dev_name, void *data)
{
	return mount_pseudo(fs_type, "bdev:", &bdev_sops, NULL, BDEVFS_MAGIC);
}

static struct file_system_type bd_type = {
	.name		= "bdev",
	.mount		= bd_mount,
	.kill_sb	= kill_anon_super,
};

static struct super_block *blockdev_superblock __read_mostly;

void __init bdev_cache_init(void)
{
	int err;
	static struct vfsmount *bd_mnt;

	bdev_cachep = kmem_cache_create("bdev_cache", sizeof(struct bdev_inode),
			0, (SLAB_HWCACHE_ALIGN|SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT|
				SLAB_MEM_SPREAD|SLAB_PANIC),
			init_once);
	err = register_filesystem(&bd_type);
	if (err)
		panic("Cannot register bdev pseudo-fs");
	bd_mnt = kern_mount(&bd_type);
	if (IS_ERR(bd_mnt))
		panic("Cannot create bdev pseudo-fs");
	blockdev_superblock = bd_mnt->mnt_sb;   /* For writeback */
}

/*
 * Most likely _very_ bad one - but then it's hardly critical for small
 * /dev and can be fixed when somebody will need really large one.
 * Keep in mind that it will be fed through icache hash function too.
 */
static inline unsigned long hash(dev_t dev)
{
	return MAJOR(dev)+MINOR(dev);
}

static int bdev_test(struct inode *inode, void *data)
{
	return BDEV_I(inode)->bdev.bd_dev == *(dev_t *)data;
}

static int bdev_set(struct inode *inode, void *data)
{
	BDEV_I(inode)->bdev.bd_dev = *(dev_t *)data;
	return 0;
}

static LIST_HEAD(all_bdevs);

struct block_device *bdget(dev_t dev)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;
	struct inode *inode;

	inode = iget5_locked(blockdev_superblock, hash(dev),
			bdev_test, bdev_set, &dev);

	if (!inode)
		return NULL;

	bdev = &BDEV_I(inode)->bdev;

	if (inode->i_state & I_NEW) {
		bdev->bd_contains = NULL;
		bdev->bd_super = NULL;
		bdev->bd_inode = inode;
		bdev->bd_block_size = (1 << inode->i_blkbits);
		bdev->bd_part_count = 0;
		bdev->bd_invalidated = 0;
		inode->i_mode = S_IFBLK;
		inode->i_rdev = dev;
		inode->i_bdev = bdev;
		inode->i_data.a_ops = &def_blk_aops;
		mapping_set_gfp_mask(&inode->i_data, GFP_USER);
		inode->i_data.backing_dev_info = &default_backing_dev_info;
		spin_lock(&bdev_lock);
		list_add(&bdev->bd_list, &all_bdevs);
		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
		unlock_new_inode(inode);
	}
	return bdev;
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdget);

/**
 * bdgrab -- Grab a reference to an already referenced block device
 * @bdev:	Block device to grab a reference to.
 */
struct block_device *bdgrab(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	ihold(bdev->bd_inode);
	return bdev;
}

long nr_blockdev_pages(void)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;
	long ret = 0;
	spin_lock(&bdev_lock);
	list_for_each_entry(bdev, &all_bdevs, bd_list) {
		ret += bdev->bd_inode->i_mapping->nrpages;
	}
	spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
	return ret;
}

void bdput(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	iput(bdev->bd_inode);
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdput);
 
static struct block_device *bd_acquire(struct inode *inode)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;

	spin_lock(&bdev_lock);
	bdev = inode->i_bdev;
	if (bdev) {
		ihold(bdev->bd_inode);
		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
		return bdev;
	}
	spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);

	bdev = bdget(inode->i_rdev);
	if (bdev) {
		spin_lock(&bdev_lock);
		if (!inode->i_bdev) {
			/*
			 * We take an additional reference to bd_inode,
			 * and it's released in clear_inode() of inode.
			 * So, we can access it via ->i_mapping always
			 * without igrab().
			 */
			ihold(bdev->bd_inode);
			inode->i_bdev = bdev;
			inode->i_mapping = bdev->bd_inode->i_mapping;
			list_add(&inode->i_devices, &bdev->bd_inodes);
		}
		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
	}
	return bdev;
}

static inline int sb_is_blkdev_sb(struct super_block *sb)
{
	return sb == blockdev_superblock;
}

/* Call when you free inode */

void bd_forget(struct inode *inode)
{
	struct block_device *bdev = NULL;

	spin_lock(&bdev_lock);
	if (inode->i_bdev) {
		if (!sb_is_blkdev_sb(inode->i_sb))
			bdev = inode->i_bdev;
		__bd_forget(inode);
	}
	spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);

	if (bdev)
		iput(bdev->bd_inode);
}

/**
 * bd_may_claim - test whether a block device can be claimed
 * @bdev: block device of interest
 * @whole: whole block device containing @bdev, may equal @bdev
 * @holder: holder trying to claim @bdev
 *
 * Test whether @bdev can be claimed by @holder.
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * spin_lock(&bdev_lock).
 *
 * RETURNS:
 * %true if @bdev can be claimed, %false otherwise.
 */
static bool bd_may_claim(struct block_device *bdev, struct block_device *whole,
			 void *holder)
{
	if (bdev->bd_holder == holder)
		return true;	 /* already a holder */
	else if (bdev->bd_holder != NULL)
		return false; 	 /* held by someone else */
	else if (bdev->bd_contains == bdev)
		return true;  	 /* is a whole device which isn't held */

	else if (whole->bd_holder == bd_may_claim)
		return true; 	 /* is a partition of a device that is being partitioned */
	else if (whole->bd_holder != NULL)
		return false;	 /* is a partition of a held device */
	else
		return true;	 /* is a partition of an un-held device */
}

/**
 * bd_prepare_to_claim - prepare to claim a block device
 * @bdev: block device of interest
 * @whole: the whole device containing @bdev, may equal @bdev
 * @holder: holder trying to claim @bdev
 *
 * Prepare to claim @bdev.  This function fails if @bdev is already
 * claimed by another holder and waits if another claiming is in
 * progress.  This function doesn't actually claim.  On successful
 * return, the caller has ownership of bd_claiming and bd_holder[s].
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * spin_lock(&bdev_lock).  Might release bdev_lock, sleep and regrab
 * it multiple times.
 *
 * RETURNS:
 * 0 if @bdev can be claimed, -EBUSY otherwise.
 */
static int bd_prepare_to_claim(struct block_device *bdev,
			       struct block_device *whole, void *holder)
{
retry:
	/* if someone else claimed, fail */
	if (!bd_may_claim(bdev, whole, holder))
		return -EBUSY;

	/* if claiming is already in progress, wait for it to finish */
	if (whole->bd_claiming) {
		wait_queue_head_t *wq = bit_waitqueue(&whole->bd_claiming, 0);
		DEFINE_WAIT(wait);

		prepare_to_wait(wq, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
		schedule();
		finish_wait(wq, &wait);
		spin_lock(&bdev_lock);
		goto retry;
	}

	/* yay, all mine */
	return 0;
}

/**
 * bd_start_claiming - start claiming a block device
 * @bdev: block device of interest
 * @holder: holder trying to claim @bdev
 *
 * @bdev is about to be opened exclusively.  Check @bdev can be opened
 * exclusively and mark that an exclusive open is in progress.  Each
 * successful call to this function must be matched with a call to
 * either bd_finish_claiming() or bd_abort_claiming() (which do not
 * fail).
 *
 * This function is used to gain exclusive access to the block device
 * without actually causing other exclusive open attempts to fail. It
 * should be used when the open sequence itself requires exclusive
 * access but may subsequently fail.
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * Might sleep.
 *
 * RETURNS:
 * Pointer to the block device containing @bdev on success, ERR_PTR()
 * value on failure.
 */
static struct block_device *bd_start_claiming(struct block_device *bdev,
					      void *holder)
{
	struct gendisk *disk;
	struct block_device *whole;
	int partno, err;

	might_sleep();

	/*
	 * @bdev might not have been initialized properly yet, look up
	 * and grab the outer block device the hard way.
	 */
	disk = get_gendisk(bdev->bd_dev, &partno);
	if (!disk)
		return ERR_PTR(-ENXIO);

	/*
	 * Normally, @bdev should equal what's returned from bdget_disk()
	 * if partno is 0; however, some drivers (floppy) use multiple
	 * bdev's for the same physical device and @bdev may be one of the
	 * aliases.  Keep @bdev if partno is 0.  This means claimer
	 * tracking is broken for those devices but it has always been that
	 * way.
	 */
	if (partno)
		whole = bdget_disk(disk, 0);
	else
		whole = bdgrab(bdev);

	module_put(disk->fops->owner);
	put_disk(disk);
	if (!whole)
		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);

	/* prepare to claim, if successful, mark claiming in progress */
	spin_lock(&bdev_lock);

	err = bd_prepare_to_claim(bdev, whole, holder);
	if (err == 0) {
		whole->bd_claiming = holder;
		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
		return whole;
	} else {
		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);
		bdput(whole);
		return ERR_PTR(err);
	}
}

#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
struct bd_holder_disk {
	struct list_head	list;
	struct gendisk		*disk;
	int			refcnt;
};

static struct bd_holder_disk *bd_find_holder_disk(struct block_device *bdev,
						  struct gendisk *disk)
{
	struct bd_holder_disk *holder;

	list_for_each_entry(holder, &bdev->bd_holder_disks, list)
		if (holder->disk == disk)
			return holder;
	return NULL;
}

static int add_symlink(struct kobject *from, struct kobject *to)
{
	return sysfs_create_link(from, to, kobject_name(to));
}

static void del_symlink(struct kobject *from, struct kobject *to)
{
	sysfs_remove_link(from, kobject_name(to));
}

/**
 * bd_link_disk_holder - create symlinks between holding disk and slave bdev
 * @bdev: the claimed slave bdev
 * @disk: the holding disk
 *
 * DON'T USE THIS UNLESS YOU'RE ALREADY USING IT.
 *
 * This functions creates the following sysfs symlinks.
 *
 * - from "slaves" directory of the holder @disk to the claimed @bdev
 * - from "holders" directory of the @bdev to the holder @disk
 *
 * For example, if /dev/dm-0 maps to /dev/sda and disk for dm-0 is
 * passed to bd_link_disk_holder(), then:
 *
 *   /sys/block/dm-0/slaves/sda --> /sys/block/sda
 *   /sys/block/sda/holders/dm-0 --> /sys/block/dm-0
 *
 * The caller must have claimed @bdev before calling this function and
 * ensure that both @bdev and @disk are valid during the creation and
 * lifetime of these symlinks.
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * Might sleep.
 *
 * RETURNS:
 * 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 */
int bd_link_disk_holder(struct block_device *bdev, struct gendisk *disk)
{
	struct bd_holder_disk *holder;
	int ret = 0;

	mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_mutex);

	WARN_ON_ONCE(!bdev->bd_holder);

	/* FIXME: remove the following once add_disk() handles errors */
	if (WARN_ON(!disk->slave_dir || !bdev->bd_part->holder_dir))
		goto out_unlock;

	holder = bd_find_holder_disk(bdev, disk);
	if (holder) {
		holder->refcnt++;
		goto out_unlock;
	}

	holder = kzalloc(sizeof(*holder), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (!holder) {
		ret = -ENOMEM;
		goto out_unlock;
	}

	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&holder->list);
	holder->disk = disk;
	holder->refcnt = 1;

	ret = add_symlink(disk->slave_dir, &part_to_dev(bdev->bd_part)->kobj);
	if (ret)
		goto out_free;

	ret = add_symlink(bdev->bd_part->holder_dir, &disk_to_dev(disk)->kobj);
	if (ret)
		goto out_del;
	/*
	 * bdev could be deleted beneath us which would implicitly destroy
	 * the holder directory.  Hold on to it.
	 */
	kobject_get(bdev->bd_part->holder_dir);

	list_add(&holder->list, &bdev->bd_holder_disks);
	goto out_unlock;

out_del:
	del_symlink(disk->slave_dir, &part_to_dev(bdev->bd_part)->kobj);
out_free:
	kfree(holder);
out_unlock:
	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(bd_link_disk_holder);

/**
 * bd_unlink_disk_holder - destroy symlinks created by bd_link_disk_holder()
 * @bdev: the calimed slave bdev
 * @disk: the holding disk
 *
 * DON'T USE THIS UNLESS YOU'RE ALREADY USING IT.
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * Might sleep.
 */
void bd_unlink_disk_holder(struct block_device *bdev, struct gendisk *disk)
{
	struct bd_holder_disk *holder;

	mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_mutex);

	holder = bd_find_holder_disk(bdev, disk);

	if (!WARN_ON_ONCE(holder == NULL) && !--holder->refcnt) {
		del_symlink(disk->slave_dir, &part_to_dev(bdev->bd_part)->kobj);
		del_symlink(bdev->bd_part->holder_dir,
			    &disk_to_dev(disk)->kobj);
		kobject_put(bdev->bd_part->holder_dir);
		list_del_init(&holder->list);
		kfree(holder);
	}

	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(bd_unlink_disk_holder);
#endif

/**
 * flush_disk - invalidates all buffer-cache entries on a disk
 *
 * @bdev:      struct block device to be flushed
 * @kill_dirty: flag to guide handling of dirty inodes
 *
 * Invalidates all buffer-cache entries on a disk. It should be called
 * when a disk has been changed -- either by a media change or online
 * resize.
 */
static void flush_disk(struct block_device *bdev, bool kill_dirty)
{
	if (__invalidate_device(bdev, kill_dirty)) {
		char name[BDEVNAME_SIZE] = "";

		if (bdev->bd_disk)
			disk_name(bdev->bd_disk, 0, name);
		printk(KERN_WARNING "VFS: busy inodes on changed media or "
		       "resized disk %s\n", name);
	}

	if (!bdev->bd_disk)
		return;
	if (disk_part_scan_enabled(bdev->bd_disk))
		bdev->bd_invalidated = 1;
}

/**
 * check_disk_size_change - checks for disk size change and adjusts bdev size.
 * @disk: struct gendisk to check
 * @bdev: struct bdev to adjust.
 *
 * This routine checks to see if the bdev size does not match the disk size
 * and adjusts it if it differs.
 */
void check_disk_size_change(struct gendisk *disk, struct block_device *bdev)
{
	loff_t disk_size, bdev_size;

	disk_size = (loff_t)get_capacity(disk) << 9;
	bdev_size = i_size_read(bdev->bd_inode);
	if (disk_size != bdev_size) {
		char name[BDEVNAME_SIZE];

		disk_name(disk, 0, name);
		printk(KERN_INFO
		       "%s: detected capacity change from %lld to %lld\n",
		       name, bdev_size, disk_size);
		i_size_write(bdev->bd_inode, disk_size);
		flush_disk(bdev, false);
	}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(check_disk_size_change);

/**
 * revalidate_disk - wrapper for lower-level driver's revalidate_disk call-back
 * @disk: struct gendisk to be revalidated
 *
 * This routine is a wrapper for lower-level driver's revalidate_disk
 * call-backs.  It is used to do common pre and post operations needed
 * for all revalidate_disk operations.
 */
int revalidate_disk(struct gendisk *disk)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;
	int ret = 0;

	if (disk->fops->revalidate_disk)
		ret = disk->fops->revalidate_disk(disk);

	bdev = bdget_disk(disk, 0);
	if (!bdev)
		return ret;

	mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
	check_disk_size_change(disk, bdev);
	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
	bdput(bdev);
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(revalidate_disk);

/*
 * This routine checks whether a removable media has been changed,
 * and invalidates all buffer-cache-entries in that case. This
 * is a relatively slow routine, so we have to try to minimize using
 * it. Thus it is called only upon a 'mount' or 'open'. This
 * is the best way of combining speed and utility, I think.
 * People changing diskettes in the middle of an operation deserve
 * to lose :-)
 */
int check_disk_change(struct block_device *bdev)
{
	struct gendisk *disk = bdev->bd_disk;
	const struct block_device_operations *bdops = disk->fops;
	unsigned int events;

	events = disk_clear_events(disk, DISK_EVENT_MEDIA_CHANGE |
				   DISK_EVENT_EJECT_REQUEST);
	if (!(events & DISK_EVENT_MEDIA_CHANGE))
		return 0;

	flush_disk(bdev, true);
	if (bdops->revalidate_disk)
		bdops->revalidate_disk(bdev->bd_disk);
	return 1;
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(check_disk_change);

void bd_set_size(struct block_device *bdev, loff_t size)
{
	unsigned bsize = bdev_logical_block_size(bdev);

	bdev->bd_inode->i_size = size;
	while (bsize < PAGE_CACHE_SIZE) {
		if (size & bsize)
			break;
		bsize <<= 1;
	}
	bdev->bd_block_size = bsize;
	bdev->bd_inode->i_blkbits = blksize_bits(bsize);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(bd_set_size);

static int __blkdev_put(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode, int for_part);

/*
 * bd_mutex locking:
 *
 *  mutex_lock(part->bd_mutex)
 *    mutex_lock_nested(whole->bd_mutex, 1)
 */

static int __blkdev_get(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode, int for_part)
{
	struct gendisk *disk;
	struct module *owner;
	int ret;
	int partno;
	int perm = 0;

	if (mode & FMODE_READ)
		perm |= MAY_READ;
	if (mode & FMODE_WRITE)
		perm |= MAY_WRITE;
	/*
	 * hooks: /n/, see "layering violations".
	 */
	if (!for_part) {
		ret = devcgroup_inode_permission(bdev->bd_inode, perm);
		if (ret != 0) {
			bdput(bdev);
			return ret;
		}
	}

 restart:

	ret = -ENXIO;
	disk = get_gendisk(bdev->bd_dev, &partno);
	if (!disk)
		goto out;
	owner = disk->fops->owner;

	disk_block_events(disk);
	mutex_lock_nested(&bdev->bd_mutex, for_part);
	if (!bdev->bd_openers) {
		bdev->bd_disk = disk;
		bdev->bd_queue = disk->queue;
		bdev->bd_contains = bdev;
		if (!partno) {
			struct backing_dev_info *bdi;

			ret = -ENXIO;
			bdev->bd_part = disk_get_part(disk, partno);
			if (!bdev->bd_part)
				goto out_clear;

			ret = 0;
			if (disk->fops->open) {
				ret = disk->fops->open(bdev, mode);
				if (ret == -ERESTARTSYS) {
					/* Lost a race with 'disk' being
					 * deleted, try again.
					 * See md.c
					 */
					disk_put_part(bdev->bd_part);
					bdev->bd_part = NULL;
					bdev->bd_disk = NULL;
					bdev->bd_queue = NULL;
					mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
					disk_unblock_events(disk);
					put_disk(disk);
					module_put(owner);
					goto restart;
				}
			}

			if (!ret && !bdev->bd_openers) {
				bd_set_size(bdev,(loff_t)get_capacity(disk)<<9);
				bdi = blk_get_backing_dev_info(bdev);
				if (bdi == NULL)
					bdi = &default_backing_dev_info;
				bdev_inode_switch_bdi(bdev->bd_inode, bdi);
			}

			/*
			 * If the device is invalidated, rescan partition
			 * if open succeeded or failed with -ENOMEDIUM.
			 * The latter is necessary to prevent ghost
			 * partitions on a removed medium.
			 */
			if (bdev->bd_invalidated) {
				if (!ret)
					rescan_partitions(disk, bdev);
				else if (ret == -ENOMEDIUM)
					invalidate_partitions(disk, bdev);
			}
			if (ret)
				goto out_clear;
		} else {
			struct block_device *whole;
			whole = bdget_disk(disk, 0);
			ret = -ENOMEM;
			if (!whole)
				goto out_clear;
			BUG_ON(for_part);
			ret = __blkdev_get(whole, mode, 1);
			if (ret)
				goto out_clear;
			bdev->bd_contains = whole;
			bdev_inode_switch_bdi(bdev->bd_inode,
				whole->bd_inode->i_data.backing_dev_info);
			bdev->bd_part = disk_get_part(disk, partno);
			if (!(disk->flags & GENHD_FL_UP) ||
			    !bdev->bd_part || !bdev->bd_part->nr_sects) {
				ret = -ENXIO;
				goto out_clear;
			}
			bd_set_size(bdev, (loff_t)bdev->bd_part->nr_sects << 9);
		}
	} else {
		if (bdev->bd_contains == bdev) {
			ret = 0;
			if (bdev->bd_disk->fops->open)
				ret = bdev->bd_disk->fops->open(bdev, mode);
			/* the same as first opener case, read comment there */
			if (bdev->bd_invalidated) {
				if (!ret)
					rescan_partitions(bdev->bd_disk, bdev);
				else if (ret == -ENOMEDIUM)
					invalidate_partitions(bdev->bd_disk, bdev);
			}
			if (ret)
				goto out_unlock_bdev;
		}
		/* only one opener holds refs to the module and disk */
		put_disk(disk);
		module_put(owner);
	}
	bdev->bd_openers++;
	if (for_part)
		bdev->bd_part_count++;
	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
	disk_unblock_events(disk);
	return 0;

 out_clear:
	disk_put_part(bdev->bd_part);
	bdev->bd_disk = NULL;
	bdev->bd_part = NULL;
	bdev->bd_queue = NULL;
	bdev_inode_switch_bdi(bdev->bd_inode, &default_backing_dev_info);
	if (bdev != bdev->bd_contains)
		__blkdev_put(bdev->bd_contains, mode, 1);
	bdev->bd_contains = NULL;
 out_unlock_bdev:
	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
	disk_unblock_events(disk);
	put_disk(disk);
	module_put(owner);
 out:
	bdput(bdev);

	return ret;
}

/**
 * blkdev_get - open a block device
 * @bdev: block_device to open
 * @mode: FMODE_* mask
 * @holder: exclusive holder identifier
 *
 * Open @bdev with @mode.  If @mode includes %FMODE_EXCL, @bdev is
 * open with exclusive access.  Specifying %FMODE_EXCL with %NULL
 * @holder is invalid.  Exclusive opens may nest for the same @holder.
 *
 * On success, the reference count of @bdev is unchanged.  On failure,
 * @bdev is put.
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * Might sleep.
 *
 * RETURNS:
 * 0 on success, -errno on failure.
 */
int blkdev_get(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode, void *holder)
{
	struct block_device *whole = NULL;
	int res;

	WARN_ON_ONCE((mode & FMODE_EXCL) && !holder);

	if ((mode & FMODE_EXCL) && holder) {
		whole = bd_start_claiming(bdev, holder);
		if (IS_ERR(whole)) {
			bdput(bdev);
			return PTR_ERR(whole);
		}
	}

	res = __blkdev_get(bdev, mode, 0);

	if (whole) {
		struct gendisk *disk = whole->bd_disk;

		/* finish claiming */
		mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
		spin_lock(&bdev_lock);

		if (!res) {
			BUG_ON(!bd_may_claim(bdev, whole, holder));
			/*
			 * Note that for a whole device bd_holders
			 * will be incremented twice, and bd_holder
			 * will be set to bd_may_claim before being
			 * set to holder
			 */
			whole->bd_holders++;
			whole->bd_holder = bd_may_claim;
			bdev->bd_holders++;
			bdev->bd_holder = holder;
		}

		/* tell others that we're done */
		BUG_ON(whole->bd_claiming != holder);
		whole->bd_claiming = NULL;
		wake_up_bit(&whole->bd_claiming, 0);

		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);

		/*
		 * Block event polling for write claims if requested.  Any
		 * write holder makes the write_holder state stick until
		 * all are released.  This is good enough and tracking
		 * individual writeable reference is too fragile given the
		 * way @mode is used in blkdev_get/put().
		 */
		if (!res && (mode & FMODE_WRITE) && !bdev->bd_write_holder &&
		    (disk->flags & GENHD_FL_BLOCK_EVENTS_ON_EXCL_WRITE)) {
			bdev->bd_write_holder = true;
			disk_block_events(disk);
		}

		mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
		bdput(whole);
	}

	return res;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(blkdev_get);

/**
 * blkdev_get_by_path - open a block device by name
 * @path: path to the block device to open
 * @mode: FMODE_* mask
 * @holder: exclusive holder identifier
 *
 * Open the blockdevice described by the device file at @path.  @mode
 * and @holder are identical to blkdev_get().
 *
 * On success, the returned block_device has reference count of one.
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * Might sleep.
 *
 * RETURNS:
 * Pointer to block_device on success, ERR_PTR(-errno) on failure.
 */
struct block_device *blkdev_get_by_path(const char *path, fmode_t mode,
					void *holder)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;
	int err;

	bdev = lookup_bdev(path);
	if (IS_ERR(bdev))
		return bdev;

	err = blkdev_get(bdev, mode, holder);
	if (err)
		return ERR_PTR(err);

	if ((mode & FMODE_WRITE) && bdev_read_only(bdev)) {
		blkdev_put(bdev, mode);
		return ERR_PTR(-EACCES);
	}

	return bdev;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(blkdev_get_by_path);

/**
 * blkdev_get_by_dev - open a block device by device number
 * @dev: device number of block device to open
 * @mode: FMODE_* mask
 * @holder: exclusive holder identifier
 *
 * Open the blockdevice described by device number @dev.  @mode and
 * @holder are identical to blkdev_get().
 *
 * Use it ONLY if you really do not have anything better - i.e. when
 * you are behind a truly sucky interface and all you are given is a
 * device number.  _Never_ to be used for internal purposes.  If you
 * ever need it - reconsider your API.
 *
 * On success, the returned block_device has reference count of one.
 *
 * CONTEXT:
 * Might sleep.
 *
 * RETURNS:
 * Pointer to block_device on success, ERR_PTR(-errno) on failure.
 */
struct block_device *blkdev_get_by_dev(dev_t dev, fmode_t mode, void *holder)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;
	int err;

	bdev = bdget(dev);
	if (!bdev)
		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);

	err = blkdev_get(bdev, mode, holder);
	if (err)
		return ERR_PTR(err);

	return bdev;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(blkdev_get_by_dev);

static int blkdev_open(struct inode * inode, struct file * filp)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;

	/*
	 * Preserve backwards compatibility and allow large file access
	 * even if userspace doesn't ask for it explicitly. Some mkfs
	 * binary needs it. We might want to drop this workaround
	 * during an unstable branch.
	 */
	filp->f_flags |= O_LARGEFILE;

	if (filp->f_flags & O_NDELAY)
		filp->f_mode |= FMODE_NDELAY;
	if (filp->f_flags & O_EXCL)
		filp->f_mode |= FMODE_EXCL;
	if ((filp->f_flags & O_ACCMODE) == 3)
		filp->f_mode |= FMODE_WRITE_IOCTL;

	bdev = bd_acquire(inode);
	if (bdev == NULL)
		return -ENOMEM;

	filp->f_mapping = bdev->bd_inode->i_mapping;

	return blkdev_get(bdev, filp->f_mode, filp);
}

static int __blkdev_put(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode, int for_part)
{
	int ret = 0;
	struct gendisk *disk = bdev->bd_disk;
	struct block_device *victim = NULL;

	mutex_lock_nested(&bdev->bd_mutex, for_part);
	if (for_part)
		bdev->bd_part_count--;

	if (!--bdev->bd_openers) {
		WARN_ON_ONCE(bdev->bd_holders);
		sync_blockdev(bdev);
		kill_bdev(bdev);
		/* ->release can cause the old bdi to disappear,
		 * so must switch it out first
		 */
		bdev_inode_switch_bdi(bdev->bd_inode,
					&default_backing_dev_info);
	}
	if (bdev->bd_contains == bdev) {
		if (disk->fops->release)
			ret = disk->fops->release(disk, mode);
	}
	if (!bdev->bd_openers) {
		struct module *owner = disk->fops->owner;

		disk_put_part(bdev->bd_part);
		bdev->bd_part = NULL;
		bdev->bd_disk = NULL;
		if (bdev != bdev->bd_contains)
			victim = bdev->bd_contains;
		bdev->bd_contains = NULL;

		put_disk(disk);
		module_put(owner);
	}
	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);
	bdput(bdev);
	if (victim)
		__blkdev_put(victim, mode, 1);
	return ret;
}

int blkdev_put(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode)
{
	mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_mutex);

	if (mode & FMODE_EXCL) {
		bool bdev_free;

		/*
		 * Release a claim on the device.  The holder fields
		 * are protected with bdev_lock.  bd_mutex is to
		 * synchronize disk_holder unlinking.
		 */
		spin_lock(&bdev_lock);

		WARN_ON_ONCE(--bdev->bd_holders < 0);
		WARN_ON_ONCE(--bdev->bd_contains->bd_holders < 0);

		/* bd_contains might point to self, check in a separate step */
		if ((bdev_free = !bdev->bd_holders))
			bdev->bd_holder = NULL;
		if (!bdev->bd_contains->bd_holders)
			bdev->bd_contains->bd_holder = NULL;

		spin_unlock(&bdev_lock);

		/*
		 * If this was the last claim, remove holder link and
		 * unblock evpoll if it was a write holder.
		 */
		if (bdev_free && bdev->bd_write_holder) {
			disk_unblock_events(bdev->bd_disk);
			bdev->bd_write_holder = false;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * Trigger event checking and tell drivers to flush MEDIA_CHANGE
	 * event.  This is to ensure detection of media removal commanded
	 * from userland - e.g. eject(1).
	 */
	disk_flush_events(bdev->bd_disk, DISK_EVENT_MEDIA_CHANGE);

	mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex);

	return __blkdev_put(bdev, mode, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(blkdev_put);

static int blkdev_close(struct inode * inode, struct file * filp)
{
	struct block_device *bdev = I_BDEV(filp->f_mapping->host);

	return blkdev_put(bdev, filp->f_mode);
}

static long block_ioctl(struct file *file, unsigned cmd, unsigned long arg)
{
	struct block_device *bdev = I_BDEV(file->f_mapping->host);
	fmode_t mode = file->f_mode;

	/*
	 * O_NDELAY can be altered using fcntl(.., F_SETFL, ..), so we have
	 * to updated it before every ioctl.
	 */
	if (file->f_flags & O_NDELAY)
		mode |= FMODE_NDELAY;
	else
		mode &= ~FMODE_NDELAY;

	return blkdev_ioctl(bdev, mode, cmd, arg);
}

/*
 * Write data to the block device.  Only intended for the block device itself
 * and the raw driver which basically is a fake block device.
 *
 * Does not take i_mutex for the write and thus is not for general purpose
 * use.
 */
ssize_t blkdev_aio_write(struct kiocb *iocb, const struct iovec *iov,
			 unsigned long nr_segs, loff_t pos)
{
	struct file *file = iocb->ki_filp;
	ssize_t ret;

	BUG_ON(iocb->ki_pos != pos);

	ret = __generic_file_aio_write(iocb, iov, nr_segs, &iocb->ki_pos);
	if (ret > 0 || ret == -EIOCBQUEUED) {
		ssize_t err;

		err = generic_write_sync(file, pos, ret);
		if (err < 0 && ret > 0)
			ret = err;
	}
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(blkdev_aio_write);

/*
 * Try to release a page associated with block device when the system
 * is under memory pressure.
 */
static int blkdev_releasepage(struct page *page, gfp_t wait)
{
	struct super_block *super = BDEV_I(page->mapping->host)->bdev.bd_super;

	if (super && super->s_op->bdev_try_to_free_page)
		return super->s_op->bdev_try_to_free_page(super, page, wait);

	return try_to_free_buffers(page);
}

static const struct address_space_operations def_blk_aops = {
	.readpage	= blkdev_readpage,
	.writepage	= blkdev_writepage,
	.write_begin	= blkdev_write_begin,
	.write_end	= blkdev_write_end,
	.writepages	= generic_writepages,
	.releasepage	= blkdev_releasepage,
	.direct_IO	= blkdev_direct_IO,
};

const struct file_operations def_blk_fops = {
	.open		= blkdev_open,
	.release	= blkdev_close,
	.llseek		= block_llseek,
	.read		= do_sync_read,
	.write		= do_sync_write,
  	.aio_read	= generic_file_aio_read,
	.aio_write	= blkdev_aio_write,
	.mmap		= generic_file_mmap,
	.fsync		= blkdev_fsync,
	.unlocked_ioctl	= block_ioctl,
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	.compat_ioctl	= compat_blkdev_ioctl,
#endif
	.splice_read	= generic_file_splice_read,
	.splice_write	= generic_file_splice_write,
};

int ioctl_by_bdev(struct block_device *bdev, unsigned cmd, unsigned long arg)
{
	int res;
	mm_segment_t old_fs = get_fs();
	set_fs(KERNEL_DS);
	res = blkdev_ioctl(bdev, 0, cmd, arg);
	set_fs(old_fs);
	return res;
}

EXPORT_SYMBOL(ioctl_by_bdev);

/**
 * lookup_bdev  - lookup a struct block_device by name
 * @pathname:	special file representing the block device
 *
 * Get a reference to the blockdevice at @pathname in the current
 * namespace if possible and return it.  Return ERR_PTR(error)
 * otherwise.
 */
struct block_device *lookup_bdev(const char *pathname)
{
	struct block_device *bdev;
	struct inode *inode;
	struct path path;
	int error;

	if (!pathname || !*pathname)
		return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);

	error = kern_path(pathname, LOOKUP_FOLLOW, &path);
	if (error)
		return ERR_PTR(error);

	inode = path.dentry->d_inode;
	error = -ENOTBLK;
	if (!S_ISBLK(inode->i_mode))
		goto fail;
	error = -EACCES;
	if (path.mnt->mnt_flags & MNT_NODEV)
		goto fail;
	error = -ENOMEM;
	bdev = bd_acquire(inode);
	if (!bdev)
		goto fail;
out:
	path_put(&path);
	return bdev;
fail:
	bdev = ERR_PTR(error);
	goto out;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(lookup_bdev);

int __invalidate_device(struct block_device *bdev, bool kill_dirty)
{
	struct super_block *sb = get_super(bdev);
	int res = 0;

	if (sb) {
		/*
		 * no need to lock the super, get_super holds the
		 * read mutex so the filesystem cannot go away
		 * under us (->put_super runs with the write lock
		 * hold).
		 */
		shrink_dcache_sb(sb);
		res = invalidate_inodes(sb, kill_dirty);
		drop_super(sb);
	}
	invalidate_bdev(bdev);
	return res;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__invalidate_device);