Free Electrons

Embedded Linux Experts

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
/*P:100
 * This is the Launcher code, a simple program which lays out the "physical"
 * memory for the new Guest by mapping the kernel image and the virtual
 * devices, then opens /dev/lguest to tell the kernel about the Guest and
 * control it.
:*/
#define _LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <err.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <elf.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/eventfd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <net/if.h>
#include <linux/sockios.h>
#include <linux/if_tun.h>
#include <sys/uio.h>
#include <termios.h>
#include <getopt.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <sched.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#include <grp.h>

#include <linux/virtio_config.h>
#include <linux/virtio_net.h>
#include <linux/virtio_blk.h>
#include <linux/virtio_console.h>
#include <linux/virtio_rng.h>
#include <linux/virtio_ring.h>
#include <asm/bootparam.h>
#include "../../include/linux/lguest_launcher.h"
/*L:110
 * We can ignore the 42 include files we need for this program, but I do want
 * to draw attention to the use of kernel-style types.
 *
 * As Linus said, "C is a Spartan language, and so should your naming be."  I
 * like these abbreviations, so we define them here.  Note that u64 is always
 * unsigned long long, which works on all Linux systems: this means that we can
 * use %llu in printf for any u64.
 */
typedef unsigned long long u64;
typedef uint32_t u32;
typedef uint16_t u16;
typedef uint8_t u8;
/*:*/

#define PAGE_PRESENT 0x7 	/* Present, RW, Execute */
#define BRIDGE_PFX "bridge:"
#ifndef SIOCBRADDIF
#define SIOCBRADDIF	0x89a2		/* add interface to bridge      */
#endif
/* We can have up to 256 pages for devices. */
#define DEVICE_PAGES 256
/* This will occupy 3 pages: it must be a power of 2. */
#define VIRTQUEUE_NUM 256

/*L:120
 * verbose is both a global flag and a macro.  The C preprocessor allows
 * this, and although I wouldn't recommend it, it works quite nicely here.
 */
static bool verbose;
#define verbose(args...) \
	do { if (verbose) printf(args); } while(0)
/*:*/

/* The pointer to the start of guest memory. */
static void *guest_base;
/* The maximum guest physical address allowed, and maximum possible. */
static unsigned long guest_limit, guest_max;
/* The /dev/lguest file descriptor. */
static int lguest_fd;

/* a per-cpu variable indicating whose vcpu is currently running */
static unsigned int __thread cpu_id;

/* This is our list of devices. */
struct device_list {
	/* Counter to assign interrupt numbers. */
	unsigned int next_irq;

	/* Counter to print out convenient device numbers. */
	unsigned int device_num;

	/* The descriptor page for the devices. */
	u8 *descpage;

	/* A single linked list of devices. */
	struct device *dev;
	/* And a pointer to the last device for easy append. */
	struct device *lastdev;
};

/* The list of Guest devices, based on command line arguments. */
static struct device_list devices;

/* The device structure describes a single device. */
struct device {
	/* The linked-list pointer. */
	struct device *next;

	/* The device's descriptor, as mapped into the Guest. */
	struct lguest_device_desc *desc;

	/* We can't trust desc values once Guest has booted: we use these. */
	unsigned int feature_len;
	unsigned int num_vq;

	/* The name of this device, for --verbose. */
	const char *name;

	/* Any queues attached to this device */
	struct virtqueue *vq;

	/* Is it operational */
	bool running;

	/* Does Guest want an intrrupt on empty? */
	bool irq_on_empty;

	/* Device-specific data. */
	void *priv;
};

/* The virtqueue structure describes a queue attached to a device. */
struct virtqueue {
	struct virtqueue *next;

	/* Which device owns me. */
	struct device *dev;

	/* The configuration for this queue. */
	struct lguest_vqconfig config;

	/* The actual ring of buffers. */
	struct vring vring;

	/* Last available index we saw. */
	u16 last_avail_idx;

	/* How many are used since we sent last irq? */
	unsigned int pending_used;

	/* Eventfd where Guest notifications arrive. */
	int eventfd;

	/* Function for the thread which is servicing this virtqueue. */
	void (*service)(struct virtqueue *vq);
	pid_t thread;
};

/* Remember the arguments to the program so we can "reboot" */
static char **main_args;

/* The original tty settings to restore on exit. */
static struct termios orig_term;

/*
 * We have to be careful with barriers: our devices are all run in separate
 * threads and so we need to make sure that changes visible to the Guest happen
 * in precise order.
 */
#define wmb() __asm__ __volatile__("" : : : "memory")
#define mb() __asm__ __volatile__("" : : : "memory")

/*
 * Convert an iovec element to the given type.
 *
 * This is a fairly ugly trick: we need to know the size of the type and
 * alignment requirement to check the pointer is kosher.  It's also nice to
 * have the name of the type in case we report failure.
 *
 * Typing those three things all the time is cumbersome and error prone, so we
 * have a macro which sets them all up and passes to the real function.
 */
#define convert(iov, type) \
	((type *)_convert((iov), sizeof(type), __alignof__(type), #type))

static void *_convert(struct iovec *iov, size_t size, size_t align,
		      const char *name)
{
	if (iov->iov_len != size)
		errx(1, "Bad iovec size %zu for %s", iov->iov_len, name);
	if ((unsigned long)iov->iov_base % align != 0)
		errx(1, "Bad alignment %p for %s", iov->iov_base, name);
	return iov->iov_base;
}

/* Wrapper for the last available index.  Makes it easier to change. */
#define lg_last_avail(vq)	((vq)->last_avail_idx)

/*
 * The virtio configuration space is defined to be little-endian.  x86 is
 * little-endian too, but it's nice to be explicit so we have these helpers.
 */
#define cpu_to_le16(v16) (v16)
#define cpu_to_le32(v32) (v32)
#define cpu_to_le64(v64) (v64)
#define le16_to_cpu(v16) (v16)
#define le32_to_cpu(v32) (v32)
#define le64_to_cpu(v64) (v64)

/* Is this iovec empty? */
static bool iov_empty(const struct iovec iov[], unsigned int num_iov)
{
	unsigned int i;

	for (i = 0; i < num_iov; i++)
		if (iov[i].iov_len)
			return false;
	return true;
}

/* Take len bytes from the front of this iovec. */
static void iov_consume(struct iovec iov[], unsigned num_iov, unsigned len)
{
	unsigned int i;

	for (i = 0; i < num_iov; i++) {
		unsigned int used;

		used = iov[i].iov_len < len ? iov[i].iov_len : len;
		iov[i].iov_base += used;
		iov[i].iov_len -= used;
		len -= used;
	}
	assert(len == 0);
}

/* The device virtqueue descriptors are followed by feature bitmasks. */
static u8 *get_feature_bits(struct device *dev)
{
	return (u8 *)(dev->desc + 1)
		+ dev->num_vq * sizeof(struct lguest_vqconfig);
}

/*L:100
 * The Launcher code itself takes us out into userspace, that scary place where
 * pointers run wild and free!  Unfortunately, like most userspace programs,
 * it's quite boring (which is why everyone likes to hack on the kernel!).
 * Perhaps if you make up an Lguest Drinking Game at this point, it will get
 * you through this section.  Or, maybe not.
 *
 * The Launcher sets up a big chunk of memory to be the Guest's "physical"
 * memory and stores it in "guest_base".  In other words, Guest physical ==
 * Launcher virtual with an offset.
 *
 * This can be tough to get your head around, but usually it just means that we
 * use these trivial conversion functions when the Guest gives us its
 * "physical" addresses:
 */
static void *from_guest_phys(unsigned long addr)
{
	return guest_base + addr;
}

static unsigned long to_guest_phys(const void *addr)
{
	return (addr - guest_base);
}

/*L:130
 * Loading the Kernel.
 *
 * We start with couple of simple helper routines.  open_or_die() avoids
 * error-checking code cluttering the callers:
 */
static int open_or_die(const char *name, int flags)
{
	int fd = open(name, flags);
	if (fd < 0)
		err(1, "Failed to open %s", name);
	return fd;
}

/* map_zeroed_pages() takes a number of pages. */
static void *map_zeroed_pages(unsigned int num)
{
	int fd = open_or_die("/dev/zero", O_RDONLY);
	void *addr;

	/*
	 * We use a private mapping (ie. if we write to the page, it will be
	 * copied). We allocate an extra two pages PROT_NONE to act as guard
	 * pages against read/write attempts that exceed allocated space.
	 */
	addr = mmap(NULL, getpagesize() * (num+2),
		    PROT_NONE, MAP_PRIVATE, fd, 0);

	if (addr == MAP_FAILED)
		err(1, "Mmapping %u pages of /dev/zero", num);

	if (mprotect(addr + getpagesize(), getpagesize() * num,
		     PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) == -1)
		err(1, "mprotect rw %u pages failed", num);

	/*
	 * One neat mmap feature is that you can close the fd, and it
	 * stays mapped.
	 */
	close(fd);

	/* Return address after PROT_NONE page */
	return addr + getpagesize();
}

/* Get some more pages for a device. */
static void *get_pages(unsigned int num)
{
	void *addr = from_guest_phys(guest_limit);

	guest_limit += num * getpagesize();
	if (guest_limit > guest_max)
		errx(1, "Not enough memory for devices");
	return addr;
}

/*
 * This routine is used to load the kernel or initrd.  It tries mmap, but if
 * that fails (Plan 9's kernel file isn't nicely aligned on page boundaries),
 * it falls back to reading the memory in.
 */
static void map_at(int fd, void *addr, unsigned long offset, unsigned long len)
{
	ssize_t r;

	/*
	 * We map writable even though for some segments are marked read-only.
	 * The kernel really wants to be writable: it patches its own
	 * instructions.
	 *
	 * MAP_PRIVATE means that the page won't be copied until a write is
	 * done to it.  This allows us to share untouched memory between
	 * Guests.
	 */
	if (mmap(addr, len, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE,
		 MAP_FIXED|MAP_PRIVATE, fd, offset) != MAP_FAILED)
		return;

	/* pread does a seek and a read in one shot: saves a few lines. */
	r = pread(fd, addr, len, offset);
	if (r != len)
		err(1, "Reading offset %lu len %lu gave %zi", offset, len, r);
}

/*
 * This routine takes an open vmlinux image, which is in ELF, and maps it into
 * the Guest memory.  ELF = Embedded Linking Format, which is the format used
 * by all modern binaries on Linux including the kernel.
 *
 * The ELF headers give *two* addresses: a physical address, and a virtual
 * address.  We use the physical address; the Guest will map itself to the
 * virtual address.
 *
 * We return the starting address.
 */
static unsigned long map_elf(int elf_fd, const Elf32_Ehdr *ehdr)
{
	Elf32_Phdr phdr[ehdr->e_phnum];
	unsigned int i;

	/*
	 * Sanity checks on the main ELF header: an x86 executable with a
	 * reasonable number of correctly-sized program headers.
	 */
	if (ehdr->e_type != ET_EXEC
	    || ehdr->e_machine != EM_386
	    || ehdr->e_phentsize != sizeof(Elf32_Phdr)
	    || ehdr->e_phnum < 1 || ehdr->e_phnum > 65536U/sizeof(Elf32_Phdr))
		errx(1, "Malformed elf header");

	/*
	 * An ELF executable contains an ELF header and a number of "program"
	 * headers which indicate which parts ("segments") of the program to
	 * load where.
	 */

	/* We read in all the program headers at once: */
	if (lseek(elf_fd, ehdr->e_phoff, SEEK_SET) < 0)
		err(1, "Seeking to program headers");
	if (read(elf_fd, phdr, sizeof(phdr)) != sizeof(phdr))
		err(1, "Reading program headers");

	/*
	 * Try all the headers: there are usually only three.  A read-only one,
	 * a read-write one, and a "note" section which we don't load.
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < ehdr->e_phnum; i++) {
		/* If this isn't a loadable segment, we ignore it */
		if (phdr[i].p_type != PT_LOAD)
			continue;

		verbose("Section %i: size %i addr %p\n",
			i, phdr[i].p_memsz, (void *)phdr[i].p_paddr);

		/* We map this section of the file at its physical address. */
		map_at(elf_fd, from_guest_phys(phdr[i].p_paddr),
		       phdr[i].p_offset, phdr[i].p_filesz);
	}

	/* The entry point is given in the ELF header. */
	return ehdr->e_entry;
}

/*L:150
 * A bzImage, unlike an ELF file, is not meant to be loaded.  You're supposed
 * to jump into it and it will unpack itself.  We used to have to perform some
 * hairy magic because the unpacking code scared me.
 *
 * Fortunately, Jeremy Fitzhardinge convinced me it wasn't that hard and wrote
 * a small patch to jump over the tricky bits in the Guest, so now we just read
 * the funky header so we know where in the file to load, and away we go!
 */
static unsigned long load_bzimage(int fd)
{
	struct boot_params boot;
	int r;
	/* Modern bzImages get loaded at 1M. */
	void *p = from_guest_phys(0x100000);

	/*
	 * Go back to the start of the file and read the header.  It should be
	 * a Linux boot header (see Documentation/x86/i386/boot.txt)
	 */
	lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_SET);
	read(fd, &boot, sizeof(boot));

	/* Inside the setup_hdr, we expect the magic "HdrS" */
	if (memcmp(&boot.hdr.header, "HdrS", 4) != 0)
		errx(1, "This doesn't look like a bzImage to me");

	/* Skip over the extra sectors of the header. */
	lseek(fd, (boot.hdr.setup_sects+1) * 512, SEEK_SET);

	/* Now read everything into memory. in nice big chunks. */
	while ((r = read(fd, p, 65536)) > 0)
		p += r;

	/* Finally, code32_start tells us where to enter the kernel. */
	return boot.hdr.code32_start;
}

/*L:140
 * Loading the kernel is easy when it's a "vmlinux", but most kernels
 * come wrapped up in the self-decompressing "bzImage" format.  With a little
 * work, we can load those, too.
 */
static unsigned long load_kernel(int fd)
{
	Elf32_Ehdr hdr;

	/* Read in the first few bytes. */
	if (read(fd, &hdr, sizeof(hdr)) != sizeof(hdr))
		err(1, "Reading kernel");

	/* If it's an ELF file, it starts with "\177ELF" */
	if (memcmp(hdr.e_ident, ELFMAG, SELFMAG) == 0)
		return map_elf(fd, &hdr);

	/* Otherwise we assume it's a bzImage, and try to load it. */
	return load_bzimage(fd);
}

/*
 * This is a trivial little helper to align pages.  Andi Kleen hated it because
 * it calls getpagesize() twice: "it's dumb code."
 *
 * Kernel guys get really het up about optimization, even when it's not
 * necessary.  I leave this code as a reaction against that.
 */
static inline unsigned long page_align(unsigned long addr)
{
	/* Add upwards and truncate downwards. */
	return ((addr + getpagesize()-1) & ~(getpagesize()-1));
}

/*L:180
 * An "initial ram disk" is a disk image loaded into memory along with the
 * kernel which the kernel can use to boot from without needing any drivers.
 * Most distributions now use this as standard: the initrd contains the code to
 * load the appropriate driver modules for the current machine.
 *
 * Importantly, James Morris works for RedHat, and Fedora uses initrds for its
 * kernels.  He sent me this (and tells me when I break it).
 */
static unsigned long load_initrd(const char *name, unsigned long mem)
{
	int ifd;
	struct stat st;
	unsigned long len;

	ifd = open_or_die(name, O_RDONLY);
	/* fstat() is needed to get the file size. */
	if (fstat(ifd, &st) < 0)
		err(1, "fstat() on initrd '%s'", name);

	/*
	 * We map the initrd at the top of memory, but mmap wants it to be
	 * page-aligned, so we round the size up for that.
	 */
	len = page_align(st.st_size);
	map_at(ifd, from_guest_phys(mem - len), 0, st.st_size);
	/*
	 * Once a file is mapped, you can close the file descriptor.  It's a
	 * little odd, but quite useful.
	 */
	close(ifd);
	verbose("mapped initrd %s size=%lu @ %p\n", name, len, (void*)mem-len);

	/* We return the initrd size. */
	return len;
}
/*:*/

/*
 * Simple routine to roll all the commandline arguments together with spaces
 * between them.
 */
static void concat(char *dst, char *args[])
{
	unsigned int i, len = 0;

	for (i = 0; args[i]; i++) {
		if (i) {
			strcat(dst+len, " ");
			len++;
		}
		strcpy(dst+len, args[i]);
		len += strlen(args[i]);
	}
	/* In case it's empty. */
	dst[len] = '\0';
}

/*L:185
 * This is where we actually tell the kernel to initialize the Guest.  We
 * saw the arguments it expects when we looked at initialize() in lguest_user.c:
 * the base of Guest "physical" memory, the top physical page to allow and the
 * entry point for the Guest.
 */
static void tell_kernel(unsigned long start)
{
	unsigned long args[] = { LHREQ_INITIALIZE,
				 (unsigned long)guest_base,
				 guest_limit / getpagesize(), start };
	verbose("Guest: %p - %p (%#lx)\n",
		guest_base, guest_base + guest_limit, guest_limit);
	lguest_fd = open_or_die("/dev/lguest", O_RDWR);
	if (write(lguest_fd, args, sizeof(args)) < 0)
		err(1, "Writing to /dev/lguest");
}
/*:*/

/*L:200
 * Device Handling.
 *
 * When the Guest gives us a buffer, it sends an array of addresses and sizes.
 * We need to make sure it's not trying to reach into the Launcher itself, so
 * we have a convenient routine which checks it and exits with an error message
 * if something funny is going on:
 */
static void *_check_pointer(unsigned long addr, unsigned int size,
			    unsigned int line)
{
	/*
	 * Check if the requested address and size exceeds the allocated memory,
	 * or addr + size wraps around.
	 */
	if ((addr + size) > guest_limit || (addr + size) < addr)
		errx(1, "%s:%i: Invalid address %#lx", __FILE__, line, addr);
	/*
	 * We return a pointer for the caller's convenience, now we know it's
	 * safe to use.
	 */
	return from_guest_phys(addr);
}
/* A macro which transparently hands the line number to the real function. */
#define check_pointer(addr,size) _check_pointer(addr, size, __LINE__)

/*
 * Each buffer in the virtqueues is actually a chain of descriptors.  This
 * function returns the next descriptor in the chain, or vq->vring.num if we're
 * at the end.
 */
static unsigned next_desc(struct vring_desc *desc,
			  unsigned int i, unsigned int max)
{
	unsigned int next;

	/* If this descriptor says it doesn't chain, we're done. */
	if (!(desc[i].flags & VRING_DESC_F_NEXT))
		return max;

	/* Check they're not leading us off end of descriptors. */
	next = desc[i].next;
	/* Make sure compiler knows to grab that: we don't want it changing! */
	wmb();

	if (next >= max)
		errx(1, "Desc next is %u", next);

	return next;
}

/*
 * This actually sends the interrupt for this virtqueue, if we've used a
 * buffer.
 */
static void trigger_irq(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	unsigned long buf[] = { LHREQ_IRQ, vq->config.irq };

	/* Don't inform them if nothing used. */
	if (!vq->pending_used)
		return;
	vq->pending_used = 0;

	/* If they don't want an interrupt, don't send one... */
	if (vq->vring.avail->flags & VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT) {
		/* ... unless they've asked us to force one on empty. */
		if (!vq->dev->irq_on_empty
		    || lg_last_avail(vq) != vq->vring.avail->idx)
			return;
	}

	/* Send the Guest an interrupt tell them we used something up. */
	if (write(lguest_fd, buf, sizeof(buf)) != 0)
		err(1, "Triggering irq %i", vq->config.irq);
}

/*
 * This looks in the virtqueue for the first available buffer, and converts
 * it to an iovec for convenient access.  Since descriptors consist of some
 * number of output then some number of input descriptors, it's actually two
 * iovecs, but we pack them into one and note how many of each there were.
 *
 * This function waits if necessary, and returns the descriptor number found.
 */
static unsigned wait_for_vq_desc(struct virtqueue *vq,
				 struct iovec iov[],
				 unsigned int *out_num, unsigned int *in_num)
{
	unsigned int i, head, max;
	struct vring_desc *desc;
	u16 last_avail = lg_last_avail(vq);

	/* There's nothing available? */
	while (last_avail == vq->vring.avail->idx) {
		u64 event;

		/*
		 * Since we're about to sleep, now is a good time to tell the
		 * Guest about what we've used up to now.
		 */
		trigger_irq(vq);

		/* OK, now we need to know about added descriptors. */
		vq->vring.used->flags &= ~VRING_USED_F_NO_NOTIFY;

		/*
		 * They could have slipped one in as we were doing that: make
		 * sure it's written, then check again.
		 */
		mb();
		if (last_avail != vq->vring.avail->idx) {
			vq->vring.used->flags |= VRING_USED_F_NO_NOTIFY;
			break;
		}

		/* Nothing new?  Wait for eventfd to tell us they refilled. */
		if (read(vq->eventfd, &event, sizeof(event)) != sizeof(event))
			errx(1, "Event read failed?");

		/* We don't need to be notified again. */
		vq->vring.used->flags |= VRING_USED_F_NO_NOTIFY;
	}

	/* Check it isn't doing very strange things with descriptor numbers. */
	if ((u16)(vq->vring.avail->idx - last_avail) > vq->vring.num)
		errx(1, "Guest moved used index from %u to %u",
		     last_avail, vq->vring.avail->idx);

	/*
	 * Grab the next descriptor number they're advertising, and increment
	 * the index we've seen.
	 */
	head = vq->vring.avail->ring[last_avail % vq->vring.num];
	lg_last_avail(vq)++;

	/* If their number is silly, that's a fatal mistake. */
	if (head >= vq->vring.num)
		errx(1, "Guest says index %u is available", head);

	/* When we start there are none of either input nor output. */
	*out_num = *in_num = 0;

	max = vq->vring.num;
	desc = vq->vring.desc;
	i = head;

	/*
	 * If this is an indirect entry, then this buffer contains a descriptor
	 * table which we handle as if it's any normal descriptor chain.
	 */
	if (desc[i].flags & VRING_DESC_F_INDIRECT) {
		if (desc[i].len % sizeof(struct vring_desc))
			errx(1, "Invalid size for indirect buffer table");

		max = desc[i].len / sizeof(struct vring_desc);
		desc = check_pointer(desc[i].addr, desc[i].len);
		i = 0;
	}

	do {
		/* Grab the first descriptor, and check it's OK. */
		iov[*out_num + *in_num].iov_len = desc[i].len;
		iov[*out_num + *in_num].iov_base
			= check_pointer(desc[i].addr, desc[i].len);
		/* If this is an input descriptor, increment that count. */
		if (desc[i].flags & VRING_DESC_F_WRITE)
			(*in_num)++;
		else {
			/*
			 * If it's an output descriptor, they're all supposed
			 * to come before any input descriptors.
			 */
			if (*in_num)
				errx(1, "Descriptor has out after in");
			(*out_num)++;
		}

		/* If we've got too many, that implies a descriptor loop. */
		if (*out_num + *in_num > max)
			errx(1, "Looped descriptor");
	} while ((i = next_desc(desc, i, max)) != max);

	return head;
}

/*
 * After we've used one of their buffers, we tell the Guest about it.  Sometime
 * later we'll want to send them an interrupt using trigger_irq(); note that
 * wait_for_vq_desc() does that for us if it has to wait.
 */
static void add_used(struct virtqueue *vq, unsigned int head, int len)
{
	struct vring_used_elem *used;

	/*
	 * The virtqueue contains a ring of used buffers.  Get a pointer to the
	 * next entry in that used ring.
	 */
	used = &vq->vring.used->ring[vq->vring.used->idx % vq->vring.num];
	used->id = head;
	used->len = len;
	/* Make sure buffer is written before we update index. */
	wmb();
	vq->vring.used->idx++;
	vq->pending_used++;
}

/* And here's the combo meal deal.  Supersize me! */
static void add_used_and_trigger(struct virtqueue *vq, unsigned head, int len)
{
	add_used(vq, head, len);
	trigger_irq(vq);
}

/*
 * The Console
 *
 * We associate some data with the console for our exit hack.
 */
struct console_abort {
	/* How many times have they hit ^C? */
	int count;
	/* When did they start? */
	struct timeval start;
};

/* This is the routine which handles console input (ie. stdin). */
static void console_input(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	int len;
	unsigned int head, in_num, out_num;
	struct console_abort *abort = vq->dev->priv;
	struct iovec iov[vq->vring.num];

	/* Make sure there's a descriptor available. */
	head = wait_for_vq_desc(vq, iov, &out_num, &in_num);
	if (out_num)
		errx(1, "Output buffers in console in queue?");

	/* Read into it.  This is where we usually wait. */
	len = readv(STDIN_FILENO, iov, in_num);
	if (len <= 0) {
		/* Ran out of input? */
		warnx("Failed to get console input, ignoring console.");
		/*
		 * For simplicity, dying threads kill the whole Launcher.  So
		 * just nap here.
		 */
		for (;;)
			pause();
	}

	/* Tell the Guest we used a buffer. */
	add_used_and_trigger(vq, head, len);

	/*
	 * Three ^C within one second?  Exit.
	 *
	 * This is such a hack, but works surprisingly well.  Each ^C has to
	 * be in a buffer by itself, so they can't be too fast.  But we check
	 * that we get three within about a second, so they can't be too
	 * slow.
	 */
	if (len != 1 || ((char *)iov[0].iov_base)[0] != 3) {
		abort->count = 0;
		return;
	}

	abort->count++;
	if (abort->count == 1)
		gettimeofday(&abort->start, NULL);
	else if (abort->count == 3) {
		struct timeval now;
		gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
		/* Kill all Launcher processes with SIGINT, like normal ^C */
		if (now.tv_sec <= abort->start.tv_sec+1)
			kill(0, SIGINT);
		abort->count = 0;
	}
}

/* This is the routine which handles console output (ie. stdout). */
static void console_output(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	unsigned int head, out, in;
	struct iovec iov[vq->vring.num];

	/* We usually wait in here, for the Guest to give us something. */
	head = wait_for_vq_desc(vq, iov, &out, &in);
	if (in)
		errx(1, "Input buffers in console output queue?");

	/* writev can return a partial write, so we loop here. */
	while (!iov_empty(iov, out)) {
		int len = writev(STDOUT_FILENO, iov, out);
		if (len <= 0)
			err(1, "Write to stdout gave %i", len);
		iov_consume(iov, out, len);
	}

	/*
	 * We're finished with that buffer: if we're going to sleep,
	 * wait_for_vq_desc() will prod the Guest with an interrupt.
	 */
	add_used(vq, head, 0);
}

/*
 * The Network
 *
 * Handling output for network is also simple: we get all the output buffers
 * and write them to /dev/net/tun.
 */
struct net_info {
	int tunfd;
};

static void net_output(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	struct net_info *net_info = vq->dev->priv;
	unsigned int head, out, in;
	struct iovec iov[vq->vring.num];

	/* We usually wait in here for the Guest to give us a packet. */
	head = wait_for_vq_desc(vq, iov, &out, &in);
	if (in)
		errx(1, "Input buffers in net output queue?");
	/*
	 * Send the whole thing through to /dev/net/tun.  It expects the exact
	 * same format: what a coincidence!
	 */
	if (writev(net_info->tunfd, iov, out) < 0)
		errx(1, "Write to tun failed?");

	/*
	 * Done with that one; wait_for_vq_desc() will send the interrupt if
	 * all packets are processed.
	 */
	add_used(vq, head, 0);
}

/*
 * Handling network input is a bit trickier, because I've tried to optimize it.
 *
 * First we have a helper routine which tells is if from this file descriptor
 * (ie. the /dev/net/tun device) will block:
 */
static bool will_block(int fd)
{
	fd_set fdset;
	struct timeval zero = { 0, 0 };
	FD_ZERO(&fdset);
	FD_SET(fd, &fdset);
	return select(fd+1, &fdset, NULL, NULL, &zero) != 1;
}

/*
 * This handles packets coming in from the tun device to our Guest.  Like all
 * service routines, it gets called again as soon as it returns, so you don't
 * see a while(1) loop here.
 */
static void net_input(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	int len;
	unsigned int head, out, in;
	struct iovec iov[vq->vring.num];
	struct net_info *net_info = vq->dev->priv;

	/*
	 * Get a descriptor to write an incoming packet into.  This will also
	 * send an interrupt if they're out of descriptors.
	 */
	head = wait_for_vq_desc(vq, iov, &out, &in);
	if (out)
		errx(1, "Output buffers in net input queue?");

	/*
	 * If it looks like we'll block reading from the tun device, send them
	 * an interrupt.
	 */
	if (vq->pending_used && will_block(net_info->tunfd))
		trigger_irq(vq);

	/*
	 * Read in the packet.  This is where we normally wait (when there's no
	 * incoming network traffic).
	 */
	len = readv(net_info->tunfd, iov, in);
	if (len <= 0)
		err(1, "Failed to read from tun.");

	/*
	 * Mark that packet buffer as used, but don't interrupt here.  We want
	 * to wait until we've done as much work as we can.
	 */
	add_used(vq, head, len);
}
/*:*/

/* This is the helper to create threads: run the service routine in a loop. */
static int do_thread(void *_vq)
{
	struct virtqueue *vq = _vq;

	for (;;)
		vq->service(vq);
	return 0;
}

/*
 * When a child dies, we kill our entire process group with SIGTERM.  This
 * also has the side effect that the shell restores the console for us!
 */
static void kill_launcher(int signal)
{
	kill(0, SIGTERM);
}

static void reset_device(struct device *dev)
{
	struct virtqueue *vq;

	verbose("Resetting device %s\n", dev->name);

	/* Clear any features they've acked. */
	memset(get_feature_bits(dev) + dev->feature_len, 0, dev->feature_len);

	/* We're going to be explicitly killing threads, so ignore them. */
	signal(SIGCHLD, SIG_IGN);

	/* Zero out the virtqueues, get rid of their threads */
	for (vq = dev->vq; vq; vq = vq->next) {
		if (vq->thread != (pid_t)-1) {
			kill(vq->thread, SIGTERM);
			waitpid(vq->thread, NULL, 0);
			vq->thread = (pid_t)-1;
		}
		memset(vq->vring.desc, 0,
		       vring_size(vq->config.num, LGUEST_VRING_ALIGN));
		lg_last_avail(vq) = 0;
	}
	dev->running = false;

	/* Now we care if threads die. */
	signal(SIGCHLD, (void *)kill_launcher);
}

/*L:216
 * This actually creates the thread which services the virtqueue for a device.
 */
static void create_thread(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	/*
	 * Create stack for thread.  Since the stack grows upwards, we point
	 * the stack pointer to the end of this region.
	 */
	char *stack = malloc(32768);
	unsigned long args[] = { LHREQ_EVENTFD,
				 vq->config.pfn*getpagesize(), 0 };

	/* Create a zero-initialized eventfd. */
	vq->eventfd = eventfd(0, 0);
	if (vq->eventfd < 0)
		err(1, "Creating eventfd");
	args[2] = vq->eventfd;

	/*
	 * Attach an eventfd to this virtqueue: it will go off when the Guest
	 * does an LHCALL_NOTIFY for this vq.
	 */
	if (write(lguest_fd, &args, sizeof(args)) != 0)
		err(1, "Attaching eventfd");

	/*
	 * CLONE_VM: because it has to access the Guest memory, and SIGCHLD so
	 * we get a signal if it dies.
	 */
	vq->thread = clone(do_thread, stack + 32768, CLONE_VM | SIGCHLD, vq);
	if (vq->thread == (pid_t)-1)
		err(1, "Creating clone");

	/* We close our local copy now the child has it. */
	close(vq->eventfd);
}

static bool accepted_feature(struct device *dev, unsigned int bit)
{
	const u8 *features = get_feature_bits(dev) + dev->feature_len;

	if (dev->feature_len < bit / CHAR_BIT)
		return false;
	return features[bit / CHAR_BIT] & (1 << (bit % CHAR_BIT));
}

static void start_device(struct device *dev)
{
	unsigned int i;
	struct virtqueue *vq;

	verbose("Device %s OK: offered", dev->name);
	for (i = 0; i < dev->feature_len; i++)
		verbose(" %02x", get_feature_bits(dev)[i]);
	verbose(", accepted");
	for (i = 0; i < dev->feature_len; i++)
		verbose(" %02x", get_feature_bits(dev)
			[dev->feature_len+i]);

	dev->irq_on_empty = accepted_feature(dev, VIRTIO_F_NOTIFY_ON_EMPTY);

	for (vq = dev->vq; vq; vq = vq->next) {
		if (vq->service)
			create_thread(vq);
	}
	dev->running = true;
}

static void cleanup_devices(void)
{
	struct device *dev;

	for (dev = devices.dev; dev; dev = dev->next)
		reset_device(dev);

	/* If we saved off the original terminal settings, restore them now. */
	if (orig_term.c_lflag & (ISIG|ICANON|ECHO))
		tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &orig_term);
}

/* When the Guest tells us they updated the status field, we handle it. */
static void update_device_status(struct device *dev)
{
	/* A zero status is a reset, otherwise it's a set of flags. */
	if (dev->desc->status == 0)
		reset_device(dev);
	else if (dev->desc->status & VIRTIO_CONFIG_S_FAILED) {
		warnx("Device %s configuration FAILED", dev->name);
		if (dev->running)
			reset_device(dev);
	} else if (dev->desc->status & VIRTIO_CONFIG_S_DRIVER_OK) {
		if (!dev->running)
			start_device(dev);
	}
}

/*L:215
 * This is the generic routine we call when the Guest uses LHCALL_NOTIFY.  In
 * particular, it's used to notify us of device status changes during boot.
 */
static void handle_output(unsigned long addr)
{
	struct device *i;

	/* Check each device. */
	for (i = devices.dev; i; i = i->next) {
		struct virtqueue *vq;

		/*
		 * Notifications to device descriptors mean they updated the
		 * device status.
		 */
		if (from_guest_phys(addr) == i->desc) {
			update_device_status(i);
			return;
		}

		/*
		 * Devices *can* be used before status is set to DRIVER_OK.
		 * The original plan was that they would never do this: they
		 * would always finish setting up their status bits before
		 * actually touching the virtqueues.  In practice, we allowed
		 * them to, and they do (eg. the disk probes for partition
		 * tables as part of initialization).
		 *
		 * If we see this, we start the device: once it's running, we
		 * expect the device to catch all the notifications.
		 */
		for (vq = i->vq; vq; vq = vq->next) {
			if (addr != vq->config.pfn*getpagesize())
				continue;
			if (i->running)
				errx(1, "Notification on running %s", i->name);
			/* This just calls create_thread() for each virtqueue */
			start_device(i);
			return;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * Early console write is done using notify on a nul-terminated string
	 * in Guest memory.  It's also great for hacking debugging messages
	 * into a Guest.
	 */
	if (addr >= guest_limit)
		errx(1, "Bad NOTIFY %#lx", addr);

	write(STDOUT_FILENO, from_guest_phys(addr),
	      strnlen(from_guest_phys(addr), guest_limit - addr));
}

/*L:190
 * Device Setup
 *
 * All devices need a descriptor so the Guest knows it exists, and a "struct
 * device" so the Launcher can keep track of it.  We have common helper
 * routines to allocate and manage them.
 */

/*
 * The layout of the device page is a "struct lguest_device_desc" followed by a
 * number of virtqueue descriptors, then two sets of feature bits, then an
 * array of configuration bytes.  This routine returns the configuration
 * pointer.
 */
static u8 *device_config(const struct device *dev)
{
	return (void *)(dev->desc + 1)
		+ dev->num_vq * sizeof(struct lguest_vqconfig)
		+ dev->feature_len * 2;
}

/*
 * This routine allocates a new "struct lguest_device_desc" from descriptor
 * table page just above the Guest's normal memory.  It returns a pointer to
 * that descriptor.
 */
static struct lguest_device_desc *new_dev_desc(u16 type)
{
	struct lguest_device_desc d = { .type = type };
	void *p;

	/* Figure out where the next device config is, based on the last one. */
	if (devices.lastdev)
		p = device_config(devices.lastdev)
			+ devices.lastdev->desc->config_len;
	else
		p = devices.descpage;

	/* We only have one page for all the descriptors. */
	if (p + sizeof(d) > (void *)devices.descpage + getpagesize())
		errx(1, "Too many devices");

	/* p might not be aligned, so we memcpy in. */
	return memcpy(p, &d, sizeof(d));
}

/*
 * Each device descriptor is followed by the description of its virtqueues.  We
 * specify how many descriptors the virtqueue is to have.
 */
static void add_virtqueue(struct device *dev, unsigned int num_descs,
			  void (*service)(struct virtqueue *))
{
	unsigned int pages;
	struct virtqueue **i, *vq = malloc(sizeof(*vq));
	void *p;

	/* First we need some memory for this virtqueue. */
	pages = (vring_size(num_descs, LGUEST_VRING_ALIGN) + getpagesize() - 1)
		/ getpagesize();
	p = get_pages(pages);

	/* Initialize the virtqueue */
	vq->next = NULL;
	vq->last_avail_idx = 0;
	vq->dev = dev;

	/*
	 * This is the routine the service thread will run, and its Process ID
	 * once it's running.
	 */
	vq->service = service;
	vq->thread = (pid_t)-1;

	/* Initialize the configuration. */
	vq->config.num = num_descs;
	vq->config.irq = devices.next_irq++;
	vq->config.pfn = to_guest_phys(p) / getpagesize();

	/* Initialize the vring. */
	vring_init(&vq->vring, num_descs, p, LGUEST_VRING_ALIGN);

	/*
	 * Append virtqueue to this device's descriptor.  We use
	 * device_config() to get the end of the device's current virtqueues;
	 * we check that we haven't added any config or feature information
	 * yet, otherwise we'd be overwriting them.
	 */
	assert(dev->desc->config_len == 0 && dev->desc->feature_len == 0);
	memcpy(device_config(dev), &vq->config, sizeof(vq->config));
	dev->num_vq++;
	dev->desc->num_vq++;

	verbose("Virtqueue page %#lx\n", to_guest_phys(p));

	/*
	 * Add to tail of list, so dev->vq is first vq, dev->vq->next is
	 * second.
	 */
	for (i = &dev->vq; *i; i = &(*i)->next);
	*i = vq;
}

/*
 * The first half of the feature bitmask is for us to advertise features.  The
 * second half is for the Guest to accept features.
 */
static void add_feature(struct device *dev, unsigned bit)
{
	u8 *features = get_feature_bits(dev);

	/* We can't extend the feature bits once we've added config bytes */
	if (dev->desc->feature_len <= bit / CHAR_BIT) {
		assert(dev->desc->config_len == 0);
		dev->feature_len = dev->desc->feature_len = (bit/CHAR_BIT) + 1;
	}

	features[bit / CHAR_BIT] |= (1 << (bit % CHAR_BIT));
}

/*
 * This routine sets the configuration fields for an existing device's
 * descriptor.  It only works for the last device, but that's OK because that's
 * how we use it.
 */
static void set_config(struct device *dev, unsigned len, const void *conf)
{
	/* Check we haven't overflowed our single page. */
	if (device_config(dev) + len > devices.descpage + getpagesize())
		errx(1, "Too many devices");

	/* Copy in the config information, and store the length. */
	memcpy(device_config(dev), conf, len);
	dev->desc->config_len = len;

	/* Size must fit in config_len field (8 bits)! */
	assert(dev->desc->config_len == len);
}

/*
 * This routine does all the creation and setup of a new device, including
 * calling new_dev_desc() to allocate the descriptor and device memory.  We
 * don't actually start the service threads until later.
 *
 * See what I mean about userspace being boring?
 */
static struct device *new_device(const char *name, u16 type)
{
	struct device *dev = malloc(sizeof(*dev));

	/* Now we populate the fields one at a time. */
	dev->desc = new_dev_desc(type);
	dev->name = name;
	dev->vq = NULL;
	dev->feature_len = 0;
	dev->num_vq = 0;
	dev->running = false;

	/*
	 * Append to device list.  Prepending to a single-linked list is
	 * easier, but the user expects the devices to be arranged on the bus
	 * in command-line order.  The first network device on the command line
	 * is eth0, the first block device /dev/vda, etc.
	 */
	if (devices.lastdev)
		devices.lastdev->next = dev;
	else
		devices.dev = dev;
	devices.lastdev = dev;

	return dev;
}

/*
 * Our first setup routine is the console.  It's a fairly simple device, but
 * UNIX tty handling makes it uglier than it could be.
 */
static void setup_console(void)
{
	struct device *dev;

	/* If we can save the initial standard input settings... */
	if (tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &orig_term) == 0) {
		struct termios term = orig_term;
		/*
		 * Then we turn off echo, line buffering and ^C etc: We want a
		 * raw input stream to the Guest.
		 */
		term.c_lflag &= ~(ISIG|ICANON|ECHO);
		tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &term);
	}

	dev = new_device("console", VIRTIO_ID_CONSOLE);

	/* We store the console state in dev->priv, and initialize it. */
	dev->priv = malloc(sizeof(struct console_abort));
	((struct console_abort *)dev->priv)->count = 0;

	/*
	 * The console needs two virtqueues: the input then the output.  When
	 * they put something the input queue, we make sure we're listening to
	 * stdin.  When they put something in the output queue, we write it to
	 * stdout.
	 */
	add_virtqueue(dev, VIRTQUEUE_NUM, console_input);
	add_virtqueue(dev, VIRTQUEUE_NUM, console_output);

	verbose("device %u: console\n", ++devices.device_num);
}
/*:*/

/*M:010
 * Inter-guest networking is an interesting area.  Simplest is to have a
 * --sharenet=<name> option which opens or creates a named pipe.  This can be
 * used to send packets to another guest in a 1:1 manner.
 *
 * More sopisticated is to use one of the tools developed for project like UML
 * to do networking.
 *
 * Faster is to do virtio bonding in kernel.  Doing this 1:1 would be
 * completely generic ("here's my vring, attach to your vring") and would work
 * for any traffic.  Of course, namespace and permissions issues need to be
 * dealt with.  A more sophisticated "multi-channel" virtio_net.c could hide
 * multiple inter-guest channels behind one interface, although it would
 * require some manner of hotplugging new virtio channels.
 *
 * Finally, we could implement a virtio network switch in the kernel.
:*/

static u32 str2ip(const char *ipaddr)
{
	unsigned int b[4];

	if (sscanf(ipaddr, "%u.%u.%u.%u", &b[0], &b[1], &b[2], &b[3]) != 4)
		errx(1, "Failed to parse IP address '%s'", ipaddr);
	return (b[0] << 24) | (b[1] << 16) | (b[2] << 8) | b[3];
}

static void str2mac(const char *macaddr, unsigned char mac[6])
{
	unsigned int m[6];
	if (sscanf(macaddr, "%02x:%02x:%02x:%02x:%02x:%02x",
		   &m[0], &m[1], &m[2], &m[3], &m[4], &m[5]) != 6)
		errx(1, "Failed to parse mac address '%s'", macaddr);
	mac[0] = m[0];
	mac[1] = m[1];
	mac[2] = m[2];
	mac[3] = m[3];
	mac[4] = m[4];
	mac[5] = m[5];
}

/*
 * This code is "adapted" from libbridge: it attaches the Host end of the
 * network device to the bridge device specified by the command line.
 *
 * This is yet another James Morris contribution (I'm an IP-level guy, so I
 * dislike bridging), and I just try not to break it.
 */
static void add_to_bridge(int fd, const char *if_name, const char *br_name)
{
	int ifidx;
	struct ifreq ifr;

	if (!*br_name)
		errx(1, "must specify bridge name");

	ifidx = if_nametoindex(if_name);
	if (!ifidx)
		errx(1, "interface %s does not exist!", if_name);

	strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, br_name, IFNAMSIZ);
	ifr.ifr_name[IFNAMSIZ-1] = '\0';
	ifr.ifr_ifindex = ifidx;
	if (ioctl(fd, SIOCBRADDIF, &ifr) < 0)
		err(1, "can't add %s to bridge %s", if_name, br_name);
}

/*
 * This sets up the Host end of the network device with an IP address, brings
 * it up so packets will flow, the copies the MAC address into the hwaddr
 * pointer.
 */
static void configure_device(int fd, const char *tapif, u32 ipaddr)
{
	struct ifreq ifr;
	struct sockaddr_in sin;

	memset(&ifr, 0, sizeof(ifr));
	strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, tapif);

	/* Don't read these incantations.  Just cut & paste them like I did! */
	sin.sin_family = AF_INET;
	sin.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(ipaddr);
	memcpy(&ifr.ifr_addr, &sin, sizeof(sin));
	if (ioctl(fd, SIOCSIFADDR, &ifr) != 0)
		err(1, "Setting %s interface address", tapif);
	ifr.ifr_flags = IFF_UP;
	if (ioctl(fd, SIOCSIFFLAGS, &ifr) != 0)
		err(1, "Bringing interface %s up", tapif);
}

static int get_tun_device(char tapif[IFNAMSIZ])
{
	struct ifreq ifr;
	int netfd;

	/* Start with this zeroed.  Messy but sure. */
	memset(&ifr, 0, sizeof(ifr));

	/*
	 * We open the /dev/net/tun device and tell it we want a tap device.  A
	 * tap device is like a tun device, only somehow different.  To tell
	 * the truth, I completely blundered my way through this code, but it
	 * works now!
	 */
	netfd = open_or_die("/dev/net/tun", O_RDWR);
	ifr.ifr_flags = IFF_TAP | IFF_NO_PI | IFF_VNET_HDR;
	strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, "tap%d");
	if (ioctl(netfd, TUNSETIFF, &ifr) != 0)
		err(1, "configuring /dev/net/tun");

	if (ioctl(netfd, TUNSETOFFLOAD,
		  TUN_F_CSUM|TUN_F_TSO4|TUN_F_TSO6|TUN_F_TSO_ECN) != 0)
		err(1, "Could not set features for tun device");

	/*
	 * We don't need checksums calculated for packets coming in this
	 * device: trust us!
	 */
	ioctl(netfd, TUNSETNOCSUM, 1);

	memcpy(tapif, ifr.ifr_name, IFNAMSIZ);
	return netfd;
}

/*L:195
 * Our network is a Host<->Guest network.  This can either use bridging or
 * routing, but the principle is the same: it uses the "tun" device to inject
 * packets into the Host as if they came in from a normal network card.  We
 * just shunt packets between the Guest and the tun device.
 */
static void setup_tun_net(char *arg)
{
	struct device *dev;
	struct net_info *net_info = malloc(sizeof(*net_info));
	int ipfd;
	u32 ip = INADDR_ANY;
	bool bridging = false;
	char tapif[IFNAMSIZ], *p;
	struct virtio_net_config conf;

	net_info->tunfd = get_tun_device(tapif);

	/* First we create a new network device. */
	dev = new_device("net", VIRTIO_ID_NET);
	dev->priv = net_info;

	/* Network devices need a recv and a send queue, just like console. */
	add_virtqueue(dev, VIRTQUEUE_NUM, net_input);
	add_virtqueue(dev, VIRTQUEUE_NUM, net_output);

	/*
	 * We need a socket to perform the magic network ioctls to bring up the
	 * tap interface, connect to the bridge etc.  Any socket will do!
	 */
	ipfd = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_IP);
	if (ipfd < 0)
		err(1, "opening IP socket");

	/* If the command line was --tunnet=bridge:<name> do bridging. */
	if (!strncmp(BRIDGE_PFX, arg, strlen(BRIDGE_PFX))) {
		arg += strlen(BRIDGE_PFX);
		bridging = true;
	}

	/* A mac address may follow the bridge name or IP address */
	p = strchr(arg, ':');
	if (p) {
		str2mac(p+1, conf.mac);
		add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_MAC);
		*p = '\0';
	}

	/* arg is now either an IP address or a bridge name */
	if (bridging)
		add_to_bridge(ipfd, tapif, arg);
	else
		ip = str2ip(arg);

	/* Set up the tun device. */
	configure_device(ipfd, tapif, ip);

	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_F_NOTIFY_ON_EMPTY);
	/* Expect Guest to handle everything except UFO */
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_CSUM);
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_CSUM);
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO4);
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO6);
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_ECN);
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO4);
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO6);
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_ECN);
	/* We handle indirect ring entries */
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_RING_F_INDIRECT_DESC);
	set_config(dev, sizeof(conf), &conf);

	/* We don't need the socket any more; setup is done. */
	close(ipfd);

	devices.device_num++;

	if (bridging)
		verbose("device %u: tun %s attached to bridge: %s\n",
			devices.device_num, tapif, arg);
	else
		verbose("device %u: tun %s: %s\n",
			devices.device_num, tapif, arg);
}
/*:*/

/* This hangs off device->priv. */
struct vblk_info {
	/* The size of the file. */
	off64_t len;

	/* The file descriptor for the file. */
	int fd;

};

/*L:210
 * The Disk
 *
 * The disk only has one virtqueue, so it only has one thread.  It is really
 * simple: the Guest asks for a block number and we read or write that position
 * in the file.
 *
 * Before we serviced each virtqueue in a separate thread, that was unacceptably
 * slow: the Guest waits until the read is finished before running anything
 * else, even if it could have been doing useful work.
 *
 * We could have used async I/O, except it's reputed to suck so hard that
 * characters actually go missing from your code when you try to use it.
 */
static void blk_request(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	struct vblk_info *vblk = vq->dev->priv;
	unsigned int head, out_num, in_num, wlen;
	int ret;
	u8 *in;
	struct virtio_blk_outhdr *out;
	struct iovec iov[vq->vring.num];
	off64_t off;

	/*
	 * Get the next request, where we normally wait.  It triggers the
	 * interrupt to acknowledge previously serviced requests (if any).
	 */
	head = wait_for_vq_desc(vq, iov, &out_num, &in_num);

	/*
	 * Every block request should contain at least one output buffer
	 * (detailing the location on disk and the type of request) and one
	 * input buffer (to hold the result).
	 */
	if (out_num == 0 || in_num == 0)
		errx(1, "Bad virtblk cmd %u out=%u in=%u",
		     head, out_num, in_num);

	out = convert(&iov[0], struct virtio_blk_outhdr);
	in = convert(&iov[out_num+in_num-1], u8);
	/*
	 * For historical reasons, block operations are expressed in 512 byte
	 * "sectors".
	 */
	off = out->sector * 512;

	/*
	 * In general the virtio block driver is allowed to try SCSI commands.
	 * It'd be nice if we supported eject, for example, but we don't.
	 */
	if (out->type & VIRTIO_BLK_T_SCSI_CMD) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Scsi commands unsupported\n");
		*in = VIRTIO_BLK_S_UNSUPP;
		wlen = sizeof(*in);
	} else if (out->type & VIRTIO_BLK_T_OUT) {
		/*
		 * Write
		 *
		 * Move to the right location in the block file.  This can fail
		 * if they try to write past end.
		 */
		if (lseek64(vblk->fd, off, SEEK_SET) != off)
			err(1, "Bad seek to sector %llu", out->sector);

		ret = writev(vblk->fd, iov+1, out_num-1);
		verbose("WRITE to sector %llu: %i\n", out->sector, ret);

		/*
		 * Grr... Now we know how long the descriptor they sent was, we
		 * make sure they didn't try to write over the end of the block
		 * file (possibly extending it).
		 */
		if (ret > 0 && off + ret > vblk->len) {
			/* Trim it back to the correct length */
			ftruncate64(vblk->fd, vblk->len);
			/* Die, bad Guest, die. */
			errx(1, "Write past end %llu+%u", off, ret);
		}

		wlen = sizeof(*in);
		*in = (ret >= 0 ? VIRTIO_BLK_S_OK : VIRTIO_BLK_S_IOERR);
	} else if (out->type & VIRTIO_BLK_T_FLUSH) {
		/* Flush */
		ret = fdatasync(vblk->fd);
		verbose("FLUSH fdatasync: %i\n", ret);
		wlen = sizeof(*in);
		*in = (ret >= 0 ? VIRTIO_BLK_S_OK : VIRTIO_BLK_S_IOERR);
	} else {
		/*
		 * Read
		 *
		 * Move to the right location in the block file.  This can fail
		 * if they try to read past end.
		 */
		if (lseek64(vblk->fd, off, SEEK_SET) != off)
			err(1, "Bad seek to sector %llu", out->sector);

		ret = readv(vblk->fd, iov+1, in_num-1);
		verbose("READ from sector %llu: %i\n", out->sector, ret);
		if (ret >= 0) {
			wlen = sizeof(*in) + ret;
			*in = VIRTIO_BLK_S_OK;
		} else {
			wlen = sizeof(*in);
			*in = VIRTIO_BLK_S_IOERR;
		}
	}

	/* Finished that request. */
	add_used(vq, head, wlen);
}

/*L:198 This actually sets up a virtual block device. */
static void setup_block_file(const char *filename)
{
	struct device *dev;
	struct vblk_info *vblk;
	struct virtio_blk_config conf;

	/* Creat the device. */
	dev = new_device("block", VIRTIO_ID_BLOCK);

	/* The device has one virtqueue, where the Guest places requests. */
	add_virtqueue(dev, VIRTQUEUE_NUM, blk_request);

	/* Allocate the room for our own bookkeeping */
	vblk = dev->priv = malloc(sizeof(*vblk));

	/* First we open the file and store the length. */
	vblk->fd = open_or_die(filename, O_RDWR|O_LARGEFILE);
	vblk->len = lseek64(vblk->fd, 0, SEEK_END);

	/* We support FLUSH. */
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_BLK_F_FLUSH);

	/* Tell Guest how many sectors this device has. */
	conf.capacity = cpu_to_le64(vblk->len / 512);

	/*
	 * Tell Guest not to put in too many descriptors at once: two are used
	 * for the in and out elements.
	 */
	add_feature(dev, VIRTIO_BLK_F_SEG_MAX);
	conf.seg_max = cpu_to_le32(VIRTQUEUE_NUM - 2);

	/* Don't try to put whole struct: we have 8 bit limit. */
	set_config(dev, offsetof(struct virtio_blk_config, geometry), &conf);

	verbose("device %u: virtblock %llu sectors\n",
		++devices.device_num, le64_to_cpu(conf.capacity));
}

/*L:211
 * Our random number generator device reads from /dev/random into the Guest's
 * input buffers.  The usual case is that the Guest doesn't want random numbers
 * and so has no buffers although /dev/random is still readable, whereas
 * console is the reverse.
 *
 * The same logic applies, however.
 */
struct rng_info {
	int rfd;
};

static void rng_input(struct virtqueue *vq)
{
	int len;
	unsigned int head, in_num, out_num, totlen = 0;
	struct rng_info *rng_info = vq->dev->priv;
	struct iovec iov[vq->vring.num];

	/* First we need a buffer from the Guests's virtqueue. */
	head = wait_for_vq_desc(vq, iov, &out_num, &in_num);
	if (out_num)
		errx(1, "Output buffers in rng?");

	/*
	 * Just like the console write, we loop to cover the whole iovec.
	 * In this case, short reads actually happen quite a bit.
	 */
	while (!iov_empty(iov, in_num)) {
		len = readv(rng_info->rfd, iov, in_num);
		if (len <= 0)
			err(1, "Read from /dev/random gave %i", len);
		iov_consume(iov, in_num, len);
		totlen += len;
	}

	/* Tell the Guest about the new input. */
	add_used(vq, head, totlen);
}

/*L:199
 * This creates a "hardware" random number device for the Guest.
 */
static void setup_rng(void)
{
	struct device *dev;
	struct rng_info *rng_info = malloc(sizeof(*rng_info));

	/* Our device's privat info simply contains the /dev/random fd. */
	rng_info->rfd = open_or_die("/dev/random", O_RDONLY);

	/* Create the new device. */
	dev = new_device("rng", VIRTIO_ID_RNG);
	dev->priv = rng_info;

	/* The device has one virtqueue, where the Guest places inbufs. */
	add_virtqueue(dev, VIRTQUEUE_NUM, rng_input);

	verbose("device %u: rng\n", devices.device_num++);
}
/* That's the end of device setup. */

/*L:230 Reboot is pretty easy: clean up and exec() the Launcher afresh. */
static void __attribute__((noreturn)) restart_guest(void)
{
	unsigned int i;

	/*
	 * Since we don't track all open fds, we simply close everything beyond
	 * stderr.
	 */
	for (i = 3; i < FD_SETSIZE; i++)
		close(i);

	/* Reset all the devices (kills all threads). */
	cleanup_devices();

	execv(main_args[0], main_args);
	err(1, "Could not exec %s", main_args[0]);
}

/*L:220
 * Finally we reach the core of the Launcher which runs the Guest, serves
 * its input and output, and finally, lays it to rest.
 */
static void __attribute__((noreturn)) run_guest(void)
{
	for (;;) {
		unsigned long notify_addr;
		int readval;

		/* We read from the /dev/lguest device to run the Guest. */
		readval = pread(lguest_fd, &notify_addr,
				sizeof(notify_addr), cpu_id);

		/* One unsigned long means the Guest did HCALL_NOTIFY */
		if (readval == sizeof(notify_addr)) {
			verbose("Notify on address %#lx\n", notify_addr);
			handle_output(notify_addr);
		/* ENOENT means the Guest died.  Reading tells us why. */
		} else if (errno == ENOENT) {
			char reason[1024] = { 0 };
			pread(lguest_fd, reason, sizeof(reason)-1, cpu_id);
			errx(1, "%s", reason);
		/* ERESTART means that we need to reboot the guest */
		} else if (errno == ERESTART) {
			restart_guest();
		/* Anything else means a bug or incompatible change. */
		} else
			err(1, "Running guest failed");
	}
}
/*L:240
 * This is the end of the Launcher.  The good news: we are over halfway
 * through!  The bad news: the most fiendish part of the code still lies ahead
 * of us.
 *
 * Are you ready?  Take a deep breath and join me in the core of the Host, in
 * "make Host".
:*/

static struct option opts[] = {
	{ "verbose", 0, NULL, 'v' },
	{ "tunnet", 1, NULL, 't' },
	{ "block", 1, NULL, 'b' },
	{ "rng", 0, NULL, 'r' },
	{ "initrd", 1, NULL, 'i' },
	{ "username", 1, NULL, 'u' },
	{ "chroot", 1, NULL, 'c' },
	{ NULL },
};
static void usage(void)
{
	errx(1, "Usage: lguest [--verbose] "
	     "[--tunnet=(<ipaddr>:<macaddr>|bridge:<bridgename>:<macaddr>)\n"
	     "|--block=<filename>|--initrd=<filename>]...\n"
	     "<mem-in-mb> vmlinux [args...]");
}

/*L:105 The main routine is where the real work begins: */
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
	/* Memory, code startpoint and size of the (optional) initrd. */
	unsigned long mem = 0, start, initrd_size = 0;
	/* Two temporaries. */
	int i, c;
	/* The boot information for the Guest. */
	struct boot_params *boot;
	/* If they specify an initrd file to load. */
	const char *initrd_name = NULL;

	/* Password structure for initgroups/setres[gu]id */
	struct passwd *user_details = NULL;

	/* Directory to chroot to */
	char *chroot_path = NULL;

	/* Save the args: we "reboot" by execing ourselves again. */
	main_args = argv;

	/*
	 * First we initialize the device list.  We keep a pointer to the last
	 * device, and the next interrupt number to use for devices (1:
	 * remember that 0 is used by the timer).
	 */
	devices.lastdev = NULL;
	devices.next_irq = 1;

	/* We're CPU 0.  In fact, that's the only CPU possible right now. */
	cpu_id = 0;

	/*
	 * We need to know how much memory so we can set up the device
	 * descriptor and memory pages for the devices as we parse the command
	 * line.  So we quickly look through the arguments to find the amount
	 * of memory now.
	 */
	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
		if (argv[i][0] != '-') {
			mem = atoi(argv[i]) * 1024 * 1024;
			/*
			 * We start by mapping anonymous pages over all of
			 * guest-physical memory range.  This fills it with 0,
			 * and ensures that the Guest won't be killed when it
			 * tries to access it.
			 */
			guest_base = map_zeroed_pages(mem / getpagesize()
						      + DEVICE_PAGES);
			guest_limit = mem;
			guest_max = mem + DEVICE_PAGES*getpagesize();
			devices.descpage = get_pages(1);
			break;
		}
	}

	/* The options are fairly straight-forward */
	while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "v", opts, NULL)) != EOF) {
		switch (c) {
		case 'v':
			verbose = true;
			break;
		case 't':
			setup_tun_net(optarg);
			break;
		case 'b':
			setup_block_file(optarg);
			break;
		case 'r':
			setup_rng();
			break;
		case 'i':
			initrd_name = optarg;
			break;
		case 'u':
			user_details = getpwnam(optarg);
			if (!user_details)
				err(1, "getpwnam failed, incorrect username?");
			break;
		case 'c':
			chroot_path = optarg;
			break;
		default:
			warnx("Unknown argument %s", argv[optind]);
			usage();
		}
	}
	/*
	 * After the other arguments we expect memory and kernel image name,
	 * followed by command line arguments for the kernel.
	 */
	if (optind + 2 > argc)
		usage();

	verbose("Guest base is at %p\n", guest_base);

	/* We always have a console device */
	setup_console();

	/* Now we load the kernel */
	start = load_kernel(open_or_die(argv[optind+1], O_RDONLY));

	/* Boot information is stashed at physical address 0 */
	boot = from_guest_phys(0);

	/* Map the initrd image if requested (at top of physical memory) */
	if (initrd_name) {
		initrd_size = load_initrd(initrd_name, mem);
		/*
		 * These are the location in the Linux boot header where the
		 * start and size of the initrd are expected to be found.
		 */
		boot->hdr.ramdisk_image = mem - initrd_size;
		boot->hdr.ramdisk_size = initrd_size;
		/* The bootloader type 0xFF means "unknown"; that's OK. */
		boot->hdr.type_of_loader = 0xFF;
	}

	/*
	 * The Linux boot header contains an "E820" memory map: ours is a
	 * simple, single region.
	 */
	boot->e820_entries = 1;
	boot->e820_map[0] = ((struct e820entry) { 0, mem, E820_RAM });
	/*
	 * The boot header contains a command line pointer: we put the command
	 * line after the boot header.
	 */
	boot->hdr.cmd_line_ptr = to_guest_phys(boot + 1);
	/* We use a simple helper to copy the arguments separated by spaces. */
	concat((char *)(boot + 1), argv+optind+2);

	/* Boot protocol version: 2.07 supports the fields for lguest. */
	boot->hdr.version = 0x207;

	/* The hardware_subarch value of "1" tells the Guest it's an lguest. */
	boot->hdr.hardware_subarch = 1;

	/* Tell the entry path not to try to reload segment registers. */
	boot->hdr.loadflags |= KEEP_SEGMENTS;

	/*
	 * We tell the kernel to initialize the Guest: this returns the open
	 * /dev/lguest file descriptor.
	 */
	tell_kernel(start);

	/* Ensure that we terminate if a device-servicing child dies. */
	signal(SIGCHLD, kill_launcher);

	/* If we exit via err(), this kills all the threads, restores tty. */
	atexit(cleanup_devices);

	/* If requested, chroot to a directory */
	if (chroot_path) {
		if (chroot(chroot_path) != 0)
			err(1, "chroot(\"%s\") failed", chroot_path);

		if (chdir("/") != 0)
			err(1, "chdir(\"/\") failed");

		verbose("chroot done\n");
	}

	/* If requested, drop privileges */
	if (user_details) {
		uid_t u;
		gid_t g;

		u = user_details->pw_uid;
		g = user_details->pw_gid;

		if (initgroups(user_details->pw_name, g) != 0)
			err(1, "initgroups failed");

		if (setresgid(g, g, g) != 0)
			err(1, "setresgid failed");

		if (setresuid(u, u, u) != 0)
			err(1, "setresuid failed");

		verbose("Dropping privileges completed\n");
	}

	/* Finally, run the Guest.  This doesn't return. */
	run_guest();
}
/*:*/

/*M:999
 * Mastery is done: you now know everything I do.
 *
 * But surely you have seen code, features and bugs in your wanderings which
 * you now yearn to attack?  That is the real game, and I look forward to you
 * patching and forking lguest into the Your-Name-Here-visor.
 *
 * Farewell, and good coding!
 * Rusty Russell.
 */