Free Electrons

Embedded Linux Experts

  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22
 23
 24
 25
 26
 27
 28
 29
 30
 31
 32
 33
 34
 35
 36
 37
 38
 39
 40
 41
 42
 43
 44
 45
 46
 47
 48
 49
 50
 51
 52
 53
 54
 55
 56
 57
 58
 59
 60
 61
 62
 63
 64
 65
 66
 67
 68
 69
 70
 71
 72
 73
 74
 75
 76
 77
 78
 79
 80
 81
 82
 83
 84
 85
 86
 87
 88
 89
 90
 91
 92
 93
 94
 95
 96
 97
 98
 99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
#!/usr/bin/perl -w
# (c) 2008, Steven Rostedt <srostedt@redhat.com>
# Licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL License version 2
#
# recordmcount.pl - makes a section called __mcount_loc that holds
#                   all the offsets to the calls to mcount.
#
#
# What we want to end up with this is that each object file will have a
# section called __mcount_loc that will hold the list of pointers to mcount
# callers. After final linking, the vmlinux will have within .init.data the
# list of all callers to mcount between __start_mcount_loc and __stop_mcount_loc.
# Later on boot up, the kernel will read this list, save the locations and turn
# them into nops. When tracing or profiling is later enabled, these locations
# will then be converted back to pointers to some function.
#
# This is no easy feat. This script is called just after the original
# object is compiled and before it is linked.
#
# When parse this object file using 'objdump', the references to the call
# sites are offsets from the section that the call site is in. Hence, all
# functions in a section that has a call site to mcount, will have the
# offset from the beginning of the section and not the beginning of the
# function.
#
# But where this section will reside finally in vmlinx is undetermined at
# this point. So we can't use this kind of offsets to record the final
# address of this call site.
#
# The trick is to change the call offset referring the start of a section to
# referring a function symbol in this section. During the link step, 'ld' will
# compute the final address according to the information we record.
#
# e.g.
#
#  .section ".sched.text", "ax"
#        [...]
#  func1:
#        [...]
#        call mcount  (offset: 0x10)
#        [...]
#        ret
#  .globl fun2
#  func2:             (offset: 0x20)
#        [...]
#        [...]
#        ret
#  func3:
#        [...]
#        call mcount (offset: 0x30)
#        [...]
#
# Both relocation offsets for the mcounts in the above example will be
# offset from .sched.text. If we choose global symbol func2 as a reference and
# make another file called tmp.s with the new offsets:
#
#  .section __mcount_loc
#  .quad  func2 - 0x10
#  .quad  func2 + 0x10
#
# We can then compile this tmp.s into tmp.o, and link it back to the original
# object.
#
# In our algorithm, we will choose the first global function we meet in this
# section as the reference. But this gets hard if there is no global functions
# in this section. In such a case we have to select a local one. E.g. func1:
#
#  .section ".sched.text", "ax"
#  func1:
#        [...]
#        call mcount  (offset: 0x10)
#        [...]
#        ret
#  func2:
#        [...]
#        call mcount (offset: 0x20)
#        [...]
#  .section "other.section"
#
# If we make the tmp.s the same as above, when we link together with
# the original object, we will end up with two symbols for func1:
# one local, one global.  After final compile, we will end up with
# an undefined reference to func1 or a wrong reference to another global
# func1 in other files.
#
# Since local objects can reference local variables, we need to find
# a way to make tmp.o reference the local objects of the original object
# file after it is linked together. To do this, we convert func1
# into a global symbol before linking tmp.o. Then after we link tmp.o
# we will only have a single symbol for func1 that is global.
# We can convert func1 back into a local symbol and we are done.
#
# Here are the steps we take:
#
# 1) Record all the local and weak symbols by using 'nm'
# 2) Use objdump to find all the call site offsets and sections for
#    mcount.
# 3) Compile the list into its own object.
# 4) Do we have to deal with local functions? If not, go to step 8.
# 5) Make an object that converts these local functions to global symbols
#    with objcopy.
# 6) Link together this new object with the list object.
# 7) Convert the local functions back to local symbols and rename
#    the result as the original object.
# 8) Link the object with the list object.
# 9) Move the result back to the original object.
#

use strict;

my $P = $0;
$P =~ s@.*/@@g;

my $V = '0.1';

if ($#ARGV != 11) {
	print "usage: $P arch endian bits objdump objcopy cc ld nm rm mv is_module inputfile\n";
	print "version: $V\n";
	exit(1);
}

my ($arch, $endian, $bits, $objdump, $objcopy, $cc,
    $ld, $nm, $rm, $mv, $is_module, $inputfile) = @ARGV;

# This file refers to mcount and shouldn't be ftraced, so lets' ignore it
if ($inputfile =~ m,kernel/trace/ftrace\.o$,) {
    exit(0);
}

# Acceptable sections to record.
my %text_sections = (
     ".text" => 1,
     ".init.text" => 1,
     ".ref.text" => 1,
     ".sched.text" => 1,
     ".spinlock.text" => 1,
     ".irqentry.text" => 1,
     ".softirqentry.text" => 1,
     ".kprobes.text" => 1,
     ".cpuidle.text" => 1,
     ".text.unlikely" => 1,
);

# Note: we are nice to C-programmers here, thus we skip the '||='-idiom.
$objdump = 'objdump' if (!$objdump);
$objcopy = 'objcopy' if (!$objcopy);
$cc = 'gcc' if (!$cc);
$ld = 'ld' if (!$ld);
$nm = 'nm' if (!$nm);
$rm = 'rm' if (!$rm);
$mv = 'mv' if (!$mv);

#print STDERR "running: $P '$arch' '$objdump' '$objcopy' '$cc' '$ld' " .
#    "'$nm' '$rm' '$mv' '$inputfile'\n";

my %locals;		# List of local (static) functions
my %weak;		# List of weak functions
my %convert;		# List of local functions used that needs conversion

my $type;
my $local_regex;	# Match a local function (return function)
my $weak_regex; 	# Match a weak function (return function)
my $section_regex;	# Find the start of a section
my $function_regex;	# Find the name of a function
			#    (return offset and func name)
my $mcount_regex;	# Find the call site to mcount (return offset)
my $mcount_adjust;	# Address adjustment to mcount offset
my $alignment;		# The .align value to use for $mcount_section
my $section_type;	# Section header plus possible alignment command
my $can_use_local = 0; 	# If we can use local function references

# Shut up recordmcount if user has older objcopy
my $quiet_recordmcount = ".tmp_quiet_recordmcount";
my $print_warning = 1;
$print_warning = 0 if ( -f $quiet_recordmcount);

##
# check_objcopy - whether objcopy supports --globalize-symbols
#
#  --globalize-symbols came out in 2.17, we must test the version
#  of objcopy, and if it is less than 2.17, then we can not
#  record local functions.
sub check_objcopy
{
    open (IN, "$objcopy --version |") or die "error running $objcopy";
    while (<IN>) {
	if (/objcopy.*\s(\d+)\.(\d+)/) {
	    $can_use_local = 1 if ($1 > 2 || ($1 == 2 && $2 >= 17));
	    last;
	}
    }
    close (IN);

    if (!$can_use_local && $print_warning) {
	print STDERR "WARNING: could not find objcopy version or version " .
	    "is less than 2.17.\n" .
	    "\tLocal function references are disabled.\n";
	open (QUIET, ">$quiet_recordmcount");
	printf QUIET "Disables the warning from recordmcount.pl\n";
	close QUIET;
    }
}

if ($arch =~ /(x86(_64)?)|(i386)/) {
    if ($bits == 64) {
	$arch = "x86_64";
    } else {
	$arch = "i386";
    }
}

#
# We base the defaults off of i386, the other archs may
# feel free to change them in the below if statements.
#
$local_regex = "^[0-9a-fA-F]+\\s+t\\s+(\\S+)";
$weak_regex = "^[0-9a-fA-F]+\\s+([wW])\\s+(\\S+)";
$section_regex = "Disassembly of section\\s+(\\S+):";
$function_regex = "^([0-9a-fA-F]+)\\s+<(.*?)>:";
$mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s(mcount|__fentry__)\$";
$section_type = '@progbits';
$mcount_adjust = 0;
$type = ".long";

if ($arch eq "x86_64") {
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s(mcount|__fentry__)([+-]0x[0-9a-zA-Z]+)?\$";
    $type = ".quad";
    $alignment = 8;
    $mcount_adjust = -1;

    # force flags for this arch
    $ld .= " -m elf_x86_64";
    $objdump .= " -M x86-64";
    $objcopy .= " -O elf64-x86-64";
    $cc .= " -m64";

} elsif ($arch eq "i386") {
    $alignment = 4;
    $mcount_adjust = -1;

    # force flags for this arch
    $ld .= " -m elf_i386";
    $objdump .= " -M i386";
    $objcopy .= " -O elf32-i386";
    $cc .= " -m32";

} elsif ($arch eq "s390" && $bits == 64) {
    if ($cc =~ /-DCC_USING_HOTPATCH/) {
	$mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):\\s*c0 04 00 00 00 00\\s*brcl\\s*0,[0-9a-f]+ <([^\+]*)>\$";
	$mcount_adjust = 0;
    } else {
	$mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):\\s*R_390_(PC|PLT)32DBL\\s+_mcount\\+0x2\$";
	$mcount_adjust = -14;
    }
    $alignment = 8;
    $type = ".quad";
    $ld .= " -m elf64_s390";
    $cc .= " -m64";

} elsif ($arch eq "sh") {
    $alignment = 2;

    # force flags for this arch
    $ld .= " -m shlelf_linux";
    $objcopy .= " -O elf32-sh-linux";

} elsif ($arch eq "powerpc") {
    $local_regex = "^[0-9a-fA-F]+\\s+t\\s+(\\.?\\S+)";
    # See comment in the sparc64 section for why we use '\w'.
    $function_regex = "^([0-9a-fA-F]+)\\s+<(\\.?\\w*?)>:";
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s\\.?_mcount\$";

    if ($bits == 64) {
	$type = ".quad";
    }

} elsif ($arch eq "arm") {
    $alignment = 2;
    $section_type = '%progbits';
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):\\s*R_ARM_(CALL|PC24|THM_CALL)" .
			"\\s+(__gnu_mcount_nc|mcount)\$";

} elsif ($arch eq "arm64") {
    $alignment = 3;
    $section_type = '%progbits';
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):\\s*R_AARCH64_CALL26\\s+_mcount\$";
    $type = ".quad";
} elsif ($arch eq "ia64") {
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s_mcount\$";
    $type = "data8";

    if ($is_module eq "0") {
        $cc .= " -mconstant-gp";
    }
} elsif ($arch eq "sparc64") {
    # In the objdump output there are giblets like:
    # 0000000000000000 <igmp_net_exit-0x18>:
    # As there's some data blobs that get emitted into the
    # text section before the first instructions and the first
    # real symbols.  We don't want to match that, so to combat
    # this we use '\w' so we'll match just plain symbol names,
    # and not those that also include hex offsets inside of the
    # '<>' brackets.  Actually the generic function_regex setting
    # could safely use this too.
    $function_regex = "^([0-9a-fA-F]+)\\s+<(\\w*?)>:";

    # Sparc64 calls '_mcount' instead of plain 'mcount'.
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s_mcount\$";

    $alignment = 8;
    $type = ".xword";
    $ld .= " -m elf64_sparc";
    $cc .= " -m64";
    $objcopy .= " -O elf64-sparc";
} elsif ($arch eq "mips") {
    # To enable module support, we need to enable the -mlong-calls option
    # of gcc for module, after using this option, we can not get the real
    # offset of the calling to _mcount, but the offset of the lui
    # instruction or the addiu one. herein, we record the address of the
    # first one, and then we can replace this instruction by a branch
    # instruction to jump over the profiling function to filter the
    # indicated functions, or switch back to the lui instruction to trace
    # them, which means dynamic tracing.
    #
    #       c:	3c030000 	lui	v1,0x0
    #			c: R_MIPS_HI16	_mcount
    #			c: R_MIPS_NONE	*ABS*
    #			c: R_MIPS_NONE	*ABS*
    #      10:	64630000 	daddiu	v1,v1,0
    #			10: R_MIPS_LO16	_mcount
    #			10: R_MIPS_NONE	*ABS*
    #			10: R_MIPS_NONE	*ABS*
    #      14:	03e0082d 	move	at,ra
    #      18:	0060f809 	jalr	v1
    #
    # for the kernel:
    #
    #     10:   03e0082d        move    at,ra
    #	  14:   0c000000        jal     0 <loongson_halt>
    #                    14: R_MIPS_26   _mcount
    #                    14: R_MIPS_NONE *ABS*
    #                    14: R_MIPS_NONE *ABS*
    #	 18:   00020021        nop
    if ($is_module eq "0") {
	    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+): R_MIPS_26\\s+_mcount\$";
    } else {
	    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+): R_MIPS_HI16\\s+_mcount\$";
    }
    $objdump .= " -Melf-trad".$endian."mips ";

    if ($endian eq "big") {
	    $endian = " -EB ";
	    $ld .= " -melf".$bits."btsmip";
    } else {
	    $endian = " -EL ";
	    $ld .= " -melf".$bits."ltsmip";
    }

    $cc .= " -mno-abicalls -fno-pic -mabi=" . $bits . $endian;
    $ld .= $endian;

    if ($bits == 64) {
	    $function_regex =
		"^([0-9a-fA-F]+)\\s+<(.|[^\$]L.*?|\$[^L].*?|[^\$][^L].*?)>:";
	    $type = ".dword";
    }
} elsif ($arch eq "microblaze") {
    # Microblaze calls '_mcount' instead of plain 'mcount'.
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s_mcount\$";
} elsif ($arch eq "blackfin") {
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s__mcount\$";
    $mcount_adjust = -4;
} elsif ($arch eq "tilegx" || $arch eq "tile") {
    # Default to the newer TILE-Gx architecture if only "tile" is given.
    $mcount_regex = "^\\s*([0-9a-fA-F]+):.*\\s__mcount\$";
    $type = ".quad";
    $alignment = 8;
} else {
    die "Arch $arch is not supported with CONFIG_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD";
}

my $text_found = 0;
my $read_function = 0;
my $opened = 0;
my $mcount_section = "__mcount_loc";

my $dirname;
my $filename;
my $prefix;
my $ext;

if ($inputfile =~ m,^(.*)/([^/]*)$,) {
    $dirname = $1;
    $filename = $2;
} else {
    $dirname = ".";
    $filename = $inputfile;
}

if ($filename =~ m,^(.*)(\.\S),) {
    $prefix = $1;
    $ext = $2;
} else {
    $prefix = $filename;
    $ext = "";
}

my $mcount_s = $dirname . "/.tmp_mc_" . $prefix . ".s";
my $mcount_o = $dirname . "/.tmp_mc_" . $prefix . ".o";

check_objcopy();

#
# Step 1: find all the local (static functions) and weak symbols.
#         't' is local, 'w/W' is weak
#
open (IN, "$nm $inputfile|") || die "error running $nm";
while (<IN>) {
    if (/$local_regex/) {
	$locals{$1} = 1;
    } elsif (/$weak_regex/) {
	$weak{$2} = $1;
    }
}
close(IN);

my @offsets;		# Array of offsets of mcount callers
my $ref_func;		# reference function to use for offsets
my $offset = 0;		# offset of ref_func to section beginning

##
# update_funcs - print out the current mcount callers
#
#  Go through the list of offsets to callers and write them to
#  the output file in a format that can be read by an assembler.
#
sub update_funcs
{
    return unless ($ref_func and @offsets);

    # Sanity check on weak function. A weak function may be overwritten by
    # another function of the same name, making all these offsets incorrect.
    if (defined $weak{$ref_func}) {
	die "$inputfile: ERROR: referencing weak function" .
	    " $ref_func for mcount\n";
    }

    # is this function static? If so, note this fact.
    if (defined $locals{$ref_func}) {

	# only use locals if objcopy supports globalize-symbols
	if (!$can_use_local) {
	    return;
	}
	$convert{$ref_func} = 1;
    }

    # Loop through all the mcount caller offsets and print a reference
    # to the caller based from the ref_func.
    if (!$opened) {
	open(FILE, ">$mcount_s") || die "can't create $mcount_s\n";
	$opened = 1;
	print FILE "\t.section $mcount_section,\"a\",$section_type\n";
	print FILE "\t.align $alignment\n" if (defined($alignment));
    }
    foreach my $cur_offset (@offsets) {
	printf FILE "\t%s %s + %d\n", $type, $ref_func, $cur_offset - $offset;
    }
}

#
# Step 2: find the sections and mcount call sites
#
open(IN, "$objdump -hdr $inputfile|") || die "error running $objdump";

my $text;


# read headers first
my $read_headers = 1;

while (<IN>) {

    if ($read_headers && /$mcount_section/) {
	#
	# Somehow the make process can execute this script on an
	# object twice. If it does, we would duplicate the mcount
	# section and it will cause the function tracer self test
	# to fail. Check if the mcount section exists, and if it does,
	# warn and exit.
	#
	print STDERR "ERROR: $mcount_section already in $inputfile\n" .
	    "\tThis may be an indication that your build is corrupted.\n" .
	    "\tDelete $inputfile and try again. If the same object file\n" .
	    "\tstill causes an issue, then disable CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE.\n";
	exit(-1);
    }

    # is it a section?
    if (/$section_regex/) {
	$read_headers = 0;

	# Only record text sections that we know are safe
	$read_function = defined($text_sections{$1});
	# print out any recorded offsets
	update_funcs();

	# reset all markers and arrays
	$text_found = 0;
	undef($ref_func);
	undef(@offsets);

    # section found, now is this a start of a function?
    } elsif ($read_function && /$function_regex/) {
	$text_found = 1;
	$text = $2;

	# if this is either a local function or a weak function
	# keep looking for functions that are global that
	# we can use safely.
	if (!defined($locals{$text}) && !defined($weak{$text})) {
	    $ref_func = $text;
	    $read_function = 0;
	    $offset = hex $1;
	} else {
	    # if we already have a function, and this is weak, skip it
	    if (!defined($ref_func) && !defined($weak{$text}) &&
		 # PPC64 can have symbols that start with .L and
		 # gcc considers these special. Don't use them!
		 $text !~ /^\.L/) {
		$ref_func = $text;
		$offset = hex $1;
	    }
	}
    }
    # is this a call site to mcount? If so, record it to print later
    if ($text_found && /$mcount_regex/) {
	push(@offsets, (hex $1) + $mcount_adjust);
    }
}

# dump out anymore offsets that may have been found
update_funcs();

# If we did not find any mcount callers, we are done (do nothing).
if (!$opened) {
    exit(0);
}

close(FILE);

#
# Step 3: Compile the file that holds the list of call sites to mcount.
#
`$cc -o $mcount_o -c $mcount_s`;

my @converts = keys %convert;

#
# Step 4: Do we have sections that started with local functions?
#
if ($#converts >= 0) {
    my $globallist = "";
    my $locallist = "";

    foreach my $con (@converts) {
	$globallist .= " --globalize-symbol $con";
	$locallist .= " --localize-symbol $con";
    }

    my $globalobj = $dirname . "/.tmp_gl_" . $filename;
    my $globalmix = $dirname . "/.tmp_mx_" . $filename;

    #
    # Step 5: set up each local function as a global
    #
    `$objcopy $globallist $inputfile $globalobj`;

    #
    # Step 6: Link the global version to our list.
    #
    `$ld -r $globalobj $mcount_o -o $globalmix`;

    #
    # Step 7: Convert the local functions back into local symbols
    #
    `$objcopy $locallist $globalmix $inputfile`;

    # Remove the temp files
    `$rm $globalobj $globalmix`;

} else {

    my $mix = $dirname . "/.tmp_mx_" . $filename;

    #
    # Step 8: Link the object with our list of call sites object.
    #
    `$ld -r $inputfile $mcount_o -o $mix`;

    #
    # Step 9: Move the result back to the original object.
    #
    `$mv $mix $inputfile`;
}

# Clean up the temp files
`$rm $mcount_o $mcount_s`;

exit(0);