Free Electrons

Embedded Linux Experts

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/*
 *  linux/fs/buffer.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 2002  Linus Torvalds
 */

/*
 * Start bdflush() with kernel_thread not syscall - Paul Gortmaker, 12/95
 *
 * Removed a lot of unnecessary code and simplified things now that
 * the buffer cache isn't our primary cache - Andrew Tridgell 12/96
 *
 * Speed up hash, lru, and free list operations.  Use gfp() for allocating
 * hash table, use SLAB cache for buffer heads. SMP threading.  -DaveM
 *
 * Added 32k buffer block sizes - these are required older ARM systems. - RMK
 *
 * async buffer flushing, 1999 Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de>
 */

#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/sched/signal.h>
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/iomap.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/capability.h>
#include <linux/blkdev.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/quotaops.h>
#include <linux/highmem.h>
#include <linux/export.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/hash.h>
#include <linux/suspend.h>
#include <linux/buffer_head.h>
#include <linux/task_io_accounting_ops.h>
#include <linux/bio.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/bitops.h>
#include <linux/mpage.h>
#include <linux/bit_spinlock.h>
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
#include <trace/events/block.h>

static int fsync_buffers_list(spinlock_t *lock, struct list_head *list);
static int submit_bh_wbc(int op, int op_flags, struct buffer_head *bh,
			 enum rw_hint hint, struct writeback_control *wbc);

#define BH_ENTRY(list) list_entry((list), struct buffer_head, b_assoc_buffers)

void init_buffer(struct buffer_head *bh, bh_end_io_t *handler, void *private)
{
	bh->b_end_io = handler;
	bh->b_private = private;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(init_buffer);

inline void touch_buffer(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	trace_block_touch_buffer(bh);
	mark_page_accessed(bh->b_page);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(touch_buffer);

void __lock_buffer(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	wait_on_bit_lock_io(&bh->b_state, BH_Lock, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__lock_buffer);

void unlock_buffer(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	clear_bit_unlock(BH_Lock, &bh->b_state);
	smp_mb__after_atomic();
	wake_up_bit(&bh->b_state, BH_Lock);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(unlock_buffer);

/*
 * Returns if the page has dirty or writeback buffers. If all the buffers
 * are unlocked and clean then the PageDirty information is stale. If
 * any of the pages are locked, it is assumed they are locked for IO.
 */
void buffer_check_dirty_writeback(struct page *page,
				     bool *dirty, bool *writeback)
{
	struct buffer_head *head, *bh;
	*dirty = false;
	*writeback = false;

	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));

	if (!page_has_buffers(page))
		return;

	if (PageWriteback(page))
		*writeback = true;

	head = page_buffers(page);
	bh = head;
	do {
		if (buffer_locked(bh))
			*writeback = true;

		if (buffer_dirty(bh))
			*dirty = true;

		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(buffer_check_dirty_writeback);

/*
 * Block until a buffer comes unlocked.  This doesn't stop it
 * from becoming locked again - you have to lock it yourself
 * if you want to preserve its state.
 */
void __wait_on_buffer(struct buffer_head * bh)
{
	wait_on_bit_io(&bh->b_state, BH_Lock, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__wait_on_buffer);

static void
__clear_page_buffers(struct page *page)
{
	ClearPagePrivate(page);
	set_page_private(page, 0);
	put_page(page);
}

static void buffer_io_error(struct buffer_head *bh, char *msg)
{
	if (!test_bit(BH_Quiet, &bh->b_state))
		printk_ratelimited(KERN_ERR
			"Buffer I/O error on dev %pg, logical block %llu%s\n",
			bh->b_bdev, (unsigned long long)bh->b_blocknr, msg);
}

/*
 * End-of-IO handler helper function which does not touch the bh after
 * unlocking it.
 * Note: unlock_buffer() sort-of does touch the bh after unlocking it, but
 * a race there is benign: unlock_buffer() only use the bh's address for
 * hashing after unlocking the buffer, so it doesn't actually touch the bh
 * itself.
 */
static void __end_buffer_read_notouch(struct buffer_head *bh, int uptodate)
{
	if (uptodate) {
		set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
	} else {
		/* This happens, due to failed read-ahead attempts. */
		clear_buffer_uptodate(bh);
	}
	unlock_buffer(bh);
}

/*
 * Default synchronous end-of-IO handler..  Just mark it up-to-date and
 * unlock the buffer. This is what ll_rw_block uses too.
 */
void end_buffer_read_sync(struct buffer_head *bh, int uptodate)
{
	__end_buffer_read_notouch(bh, uptodate);
	put_bh(bh);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(end_buffer_read_sync);

void end_buffer_write_sync(struct buffer_head *bh, int uptodate)
{
	if (uptodate) {
		set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
	} else {
		buffer_io_error(bh, ", lost sync page write");
		mark_buffer_write_io_error(bh);
		clear_buffer_uptodate(bh);
	}
	unlock_buffer(bh);
	put_bh(bh);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(end_buffer_write_sync);

/*
 * Various filesystems appear to want __find_get_block to be non-blocking.
 * But it's the page lock which protects the buffers.  To get around this,
 * we get exclusion from try_to_free_buffers with the blockdev mapping's
 * private_lock.
 *
 * Hack idea: for the blockdev mapping, i_bufferlist_lock contention
 * may be quite high.  This code could TryLock the page, and if that
 * succeeds, there is no need to take private_lock. (But if
 * private_lock is contended then so is mapping->tree_lock).
 */
static struct buffer_head *
__find_get_block_slow(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block)
{
	struct inode *bd_inode = bdev->bd_inode;
	struct address_space *bd_mapping = bd_inode->i_mapping;
	struct buffer_head *ret = NULL;
	pgoff_t index;
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	struct buffer_head *head;
	struct page *page;
	int all_mapped = 1;

	index = block >> (PAGE_SHIFT - bd_inode->i_blkbits);
	page = find_get_page_flags(bd_mapping, index, FGP_ACCESSED);
	if (!page)
		goto out;

	spin_lock(&bd_mapping->private_lock);
	if (!page_has_buffers(page))
		goto out_unlock;
	head = page_buffers(page);
	bh = head;
	do {
		if (!buffer_mapped(bh))
			all_mapped = 0;
		else if (bh->b_blocknr == block) {
			ret = bh;
			get_bh(bh);
			goto out_unlock;
		}
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);

	/* we might be here because some of the buffers on this page are
	 * not mapped.  This is due to various races between
	 * file io on the block device and getblk.  It gets dealt with
	 * elsewhere, don't buffer_error if we had some unmapped buffers
	 */
	if (all_mapped) {
		printk("__find_get_block_slow() failed. "
			"block=%llu, b_blocknr=%llu\n",
			(unsigned long long)block,
			(unsigned long long)bh->b_blocknr);
		printk("b_state=0x%08lx, b_size=%zu\n",
			bh->b_state, bh->b_size);
		printk("device %pg blocksize: %d\n", bdev,
			1 << bd_inode->i_blkbits);
	}
out_unlock:
	spin_unlock(&bd_mapping->private_lock);
	put_page(page);
out:
	return ret;
}

/*
 * Kick the writeback threads then try to free up some ZONE_NORMAL memory.
 */
static void free_more_memory(void)
{
	struct zoneref *z;
	int nid;

	wakeup_flusher_threads(1024, WB_REASON_FREE_MORE_MEM);
	yield();

	for_each_online_node(nid) {

		z = first_zones_zonelist(node_zonelist(nid, GFP_NOFS),
						gfp_zone(GFP_NOFS), NULL);
		if (z->zone)
			try_to_free_pages(node_zonelist(nid, GFP_NOFS), 0,
						GFP_NOFS, NULL);
	}
}

/*
 * I/O completion handler for block_read_full_page() - pages
 * which come unlocked at the end of I/O.
 */
static void end_buffer_async_read(struct buffer_head *bh, int uptodate)
{
	unsigned long flags;
	struct buffer_head *first;
	struct buffer_head *tmp;
	struct page *page;
	int page_uptodate = 1;

	BUG_ON(!buffer_async_read(bh));

	page = bh->b_page;
	if (uptodate) {
		set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
	} else {
		clear_buffer_uptodate(bh);
		buffer_io_error(bh, ", async page read");
		SetPageError(page);
	}

	/*
	 * Be _very_ careful from here on. Bad things can happen if
	 * two buffer heads end IO at almost the same time and both
	 * decide that the page is now completely done.
	 */
	first = page_buffers(page);
	local_irq_save(flags);
	bit_spin_lock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &first->b_state);
	clear_buffer_async_read(bh);
	unlock_buffer(bh);
	tmp = bh;
	do {
		if (!buffer_uptodate(tmp))
			page_uptodate = 0;
		if (buffer_async_read(tmp)) {
			BUG_ON(!buffer_locked(tmp));
			goto still_busy;
		}
		tmp = tmp->b_this_page;
	} while (tmp != bh);
	bit_spin_unlock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &first->b_state);
	local_irq_restore(flags);

	/*
	 * If none of the buffers had errors and they are all
	 * uptodate then we can set the page uptodate.
	 */
	if (page_uptodate && !PageError(page))
		SetPageUptodate(page);
	unlock_page(page);
	return;

still_busy:
	bit_spin_unlock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &first->b_state);
	local_irq_restore(flags);
	return;
}

/*
 * Completion handler for block_write_full_page() - pages which are unlocked
 * during I/O, and which have PageWriteback cleared upon I/O completion.
 */
void end_buffer_async_write(struct buffer_head *bh, int uptodate)
{
	unsigned long flags;
	struct buffer_head *first;
	struct buffer_head *tmp;
	struct page *page;

	BUG_ON(!buffer_async_write(bh));

	page = bh->b_page;
	if (uptodate) {
		set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
	} else {
		buffer_io_error(bh, ", lost async page write");
		mark_buffer_write_io_error(bh);
		clear_buffer_uptodate(bh);
		SetPageError(page);
	}

	first = page_buffers(page);
	local_irq_save(flags);
	bit_spin_lock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &first->b_state);

	clear_buffer_async_write(bh);
	unlock_buffer(bh);
	tmp = bh->b_this_page;
	while (tmp != bh) {
		if (buffer_async_write(tmp)) {
			BUG_ON(!buffer_locked(tmp));
			goto still_busy;
		}
		tmp = tmp->b_this_page;
	}
	bit_spin_unlock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &first->b_state);
	local_irq_restore(flags);
	end_page_writeback(page);
	return;

still_busy:
	bit_spin_unlock(BH_Uptodate_Lock, &first->b_state);
	local_irq_restore(flags);
	return;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(end_buffer_async_write);

/*
 * If a page's buffers are under async readin (end_buffer_async_read
 * completion) then there is a possibility that another thread of
 * control could lock one of the buffers after it has completed
 * but while some of the other buffers have not completed.  This
 * locked buffer would confuse end_buffer_async_read() into not unlocking
 * the page.  So the absence of BH_Async_Read tells end_buffer_async_read()
 * that this buffer is not under async I/O.
 *
 * The page comes unlocked when it has no locked buffer_async buffers
 * left.
 *
 * PageLocked prevents anyone starting new async I/O reads any of
 * the buffers.
 *
 * PageWriteback is used to prevent simultaneous writeout of the same
 * page.
 *
 * PageLocked prevents anyone from starting writeback of a page which is
 * under read I/O (PageWriteback is only ever set against a locked page).
 */
static void mark_buffer_async_read(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_async_read;
	set_buffer_async_read(bh);
}

static void mark_buffer_async_write_endio(struct buffer_head *bh,
					  bh_end_io_t *handler)
{
	bh->b_end_io = handler;
	set_buffer_async_write(bh);
}

void mark_buffer_async_write(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	mark_buffer_async_write_endio(bh, end_buffer_async_write);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(mark_buffer_async_write);


/*
 * fs/buffer.c contains helper functions for buffer-backed address space's
 * fsync functions.  A common requirement for buffer-based filesystems is
 * that certain data from the backing blockdev needs to be written out for
 * a successful fsync().  For example, ext2 indirect blocks need to be
 * written back and waited upon before fsync() returns.
 *
 * The functions mark_buffer_inode_dirty(), fsync_inode_buffers(),
 * inode_has_buffers() and invalidate_inode_buffers() are provided for the
 * management of a list of dependent buffers at ->i_mapping->private_list.
 *
 * Locking is a little subtle: try_to_free_buffers() will remove buffers
 * from their controlling inode's queue when they are being freed.  But
 * try_to_free_buffers() will be operating against the *blockdev* mapping
 * at the time, not against the S_ISREG file which depends on those buffers.
 * So the locking for private_list is via the private_lock in the address_space
 * which backs the buffers.  Which is different from the address_space 
 * against which the buffers are listed.  So for a particular address_space,
 * mapping->private_lock does *not* protect mapping->private_list!  In fact,
 * mapping->private_list will always be protected by the backing blockdev's
 * ->private_lock.
 *
 * Which introduces a requirement: all buffers on an address_space's
 * ->private_list must be from the same address_space: the blockdev's.
 *
 * address_spaces which do not place buffers at ->private_list via these
 * utility functions are free to use private_lock and private_list for
 * whatever they want.  The only requirement is that list_empty(private_list)
 * be true at clear_inode() time.
 *
 * FIXME: clear_inode should not call invalidate_inode_buffers().  The
 * filesystems should do that.  invalidate_inode_buffers() should just go
 * BUG_ON(!list_empty).
 *
 * FIXME: mark_buffer_dirty_inode() is a data-plane operation.  It should
 * take an address_space, not an inode.  And it should be called
 * mark_buffer_dirty_fsync() to clearly define why those buffers are being
 * queued up.
 *
 * FIXME: mark_buffer_dirty_inode() doesn't need to add the buffer to the
 * list if it is already on a list.  Because if the buffer is on a list,
 * it *must* already be on the right one.  If not, the filesystem is being
 * silly.  This will save a ton of locking.  But first we have to ensure
 * that buffers are taken *off* the old inode's list when they are freed
 * (presumably in truncate).  That requires careful auditing of all
 * filesystems (do it inside bforget()).  It could also be done by bringing
 * b_inode back.
 */

/*
 * The buffer's backing address_space's private_lock must be held
 */
static void __remove_assoc_queue(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	list_del_init(&bh->b_assoc_buffers);
	WARN_ON(!bh->b_assoc_map);
	bh->b_assoc_map = NULL;
}

int inode_has_buffers(struct inode *inode)
{
	return !list_empty(&inode->i_data.private_list);
}

/*
 * osync is designed to support O_SYNC io.  It waits synchronously for
 * all already-submitted IO to complete, but does not queue any new
 * writes to the disk.
 *
 * To do O_SYNC writes, just queue the buffer writes with ll_rw_block as
 * you dirty the buffers, and then use osync_inode_buffers to wait for
 * completion.  Any other dirty buffers which are not yet queued for
 * write will not be flushed to disk by the osync.
 */
static int osync_buffers_list(spinlock_t *lock, struct list_head *list)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	struct list_head *p;
	int err = 0;

	spin_lock(lock);
repeat:
	list_for_each_prev(p, list) {
		bh = BH_ENTRY(p);
		if (buffer_locked(bh)) {
			get_bh(bh);
			spin_unlock(lock);
			wait_on_buffer(bh);
			if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
				err = -EIO;
			brelse(bh);
			spin_lock(lock);
			goto repeat;
		}
	}
	spin_unlock(lock);
	return err;
}

static void do_thaw_one(struct super_block *sb, void *unused)
{
	while (sb->s_bdev && !thaw_bdev(sb->s_bdev, sb))
		printk(KERN_WARNING "Emergency Thaw on %pg\n", sb->s_bdev);
}

static void do_thaw_all(struct work_struct *work)
{
	iterate_supers(do_thaw_one, NULL);
	kfree(work);
	printk(KERN_WARNING "Emergency Thaw complete\n");
}

/**
 * emergency_thaw_all -- forcibly thaw every frozen filesystem
 *
 * Used for emergency unfreeze of all filesystems via SysRq
 */
void emergency_thaw_all(void)
{
	struct work_struct *work;

	work = kmalloc(sizeof(*work), GFP_ATOMIC);
	if (work) {
		INIT_WORK(work, do_thaw_all);
		schedule_work(work);
	}
}

/**
 * sync_mapping_buffers - write out & wait upon a mapping's "associated" buffers
 * @mapping: the mapping which wants those buffers written
 *
 * Starts I/O against the buffers at mapping->private_list, and waits upon
 * that I/O.
 *
 * Basically, this is a convenience function for fsync().
 * @mapping is a file or directory which needs those buffers to be written for
 * a successful fsync().
 */
int sync_mapping_buffers(struct address_space *mapping)
{
	struct address_space *buffer_mapping = mapping->private_data;

	if (buffer_mapping == NULL || list_empty(&mapping->private_list))
		return 0;

	return fsync_buffers_list(&buffer_mapping->private_lock,
					&mapping->private_list);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(sync_mapping_buffers);

/*
 * Called when we've recently written block `bblock', and it is known that
 * `bblock' was for a buffer_boundary() buffer.  This means that the block at
 * `bblock + 1' is probably a dirty indirect block.  Hunt it down and, if it's
 * dirty, schedule it for IO.  So that indirects merge nicely with their data.
 */
void write_boundary_block(struct block_device *bdev,
			sector_t bblock, unsigned blocksize)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh = __find_get_block(bdev, bblock + 1, blocksize);
	if (bh) {
		if (buffer_dirty(bh))
			ll_rw_block(REQ_OP_WRITE, 0, 1, &bh);
		put_bh(bh);
	}
}

void mark_buffer_dirty_inode(struct buffer_head *bh, struct inode *inode)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = inode->i_mapping;
	struct address_space *buffer_mapping = bh->b_page->mapping;

	mark_buffer_dirty(bh);
	if (!mapping->private_data) {
		mapping->private_data = buffer_mapping;
	} else {
		BUG_ON(mapping->private_data != buffer_mapping);
	}
	if (!bh->b_assoc_map) {
		spin_lock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
		list_move_tail(&bh->b_assoc_buffers,
				&mapping->private_list);
		bh->b_assoc_map = mapping;
		spin_unlock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
	}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(mark_buffer_dirty_inode);

/*
 * Mark the page dirty, and set it dirty in the radix tree, and mark the inode
 * dirty.
 *
 * If warn is true, then emit a warning if the page is not uptodate and has
 * not been truncated.
 *
 * The caller must hold lock_page_memcg().
 */
static void __set_page_dirty(struct page *page, struct address_space *mapping,
			     int warn)
{
	unsigned long flags;

	spin_lock_irqsave(&mapping->tree_lock, flags);
	if (page->mapping) {	/* Race with truncate? */
		WARN_ON_ONCE(warn && !PageUptodate(page));
		account_page_dirtied(page, mapping);
		radix_tree_tag_set(&mapping->page_tree,
				page_index(page), PAGECACHE_TAG_DIRTY);
	}
	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&mapping->tree_lock, flags);
}

/*
 * Add a page to the dirty page list.
 *
 * It is a sad fact of life that this function is called from several places
 * deeply under spinlocking.  It may not sleep.
 *
 * If the page has buffers, the uptodate buffers are set dirty, to preserve
 * dirty-state coherency between the page and the buffers.  It the page does
 * not have buffers then when they are later attached they will all be set
 * dirty.
 *
 * The buffers are dirtied before the page is dirtied.  There's a small race
 * window in which a writepage caller may see the page cleanness but not the
 * buffer dirtiness.  That's fine.  If this code were to set the page dirty
 * before the buffers, a concurrent writepage caller could clear the page dirty
 * bit, see a bunch of clean buffers and we'd end up with dirty buffers/clean
 * page on the dirty page list.
 *
 * We use private_lock to lock against try_to_free_buffers while using the
 * page's buffer list.  Also use this to protect against clean buffers being
 * added to the page after it was set dirty.
 *
 * FIXME: may need to call ->reservepage here as well.  That's rather up to the
 * address_space though.
 */
int __set_page_dirty_buffers(struct page *page)
{
	int newly_dirty;
	struct address_space *mapping = page_mapping(page);

	if (unlikely(!mapping))
		return !TestSetPageDirty(page);

	spin_lock(&mapping->private_lock);
	if (page_has_buffers(page)) {
		struct buffer_head *head = page_buffers(page);
		struct buffer_head *bh = head;

		do {
			set_buffer_dirty(bh);
			bh = bh->b_this_page;
		} while (bh != head);
	}
	/*
	 * Lock out page->mem_cgroup migration to keep PageDirty
	 * synchronized with per-memcg dirty page counters.
	 */
	lock_page_memcg(page);
	newly_dirty = !TestSetPageDirty(page);
	spin_unlock(&mapping->private_lock);

	if (newly_dirty)
		__set_page_dirty(page, mapping, 1);

	unlock_page_memcg(page);

	if (newly_dirty)
		__mark_inode_dirty(mapping->host, I_DIRTY_PAGES);

	return newly_dirty;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__set_page_dirty_buffers);

/*
 * Write out and wait upon a list of buffers.
 *
 * We have conflicting pressures: we want to make sure that all
 * initially dirty buffers get waited on, but that any subsequently
 * dirtied buffers don't.  After all, we don't want fsync to last
 * forever if somebody is actively writing to the file.
 *
 * Do this in two main stages: first we copy dirty buffers to a
 * temporary inode list, queueing the writes as we go.  Then we clean
 * up, waiting for those writes to complete.
 * 
 * During this second stage, any subsequent updates to the file may end
 * up refiling the buffer on the original inode's dirty list again, so
 * there is a chance we will end up with a buffer queued for write but
 * not yet completed on that list.  So, as a final cleanup we go through
 * the osync code to catch these locked, dirty buffers without requeuing
 * any newly dirty buffers for write.
 */
static int fsync_buffers_list(spinlock_t *lock, struct list_head *list)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	struct list_head tmp;
	struct address_space *mapping;
	int err = 0, err2;
	struct blk_plug plug;

	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&tmp);
	blk_start_plug(&plug);

	spin_lock(lock);
	while (!list_empty(list)) {
		bh = BH_ENTRY(list->next);
		mapping = bh->b_assoc_map;
		__remove_assoc_queue(bh);
		/* Avoid race with mark_buffer_dirty_inode() which does
		 * a lockless check and we rely on seeing the dirty bit */
		smp_mb();
		if (buffer_dirty(bh) || buffer_locked(bh)) {
			list_add(&bh->b_assoc_buffers, &tmp);
			bh->b_assoc_map = mapping;
			if (buffer_dirty(bh)) {
				get_bh(bh);
				spin_unlock(lock);
				/*
				 * Ensure any pending I/O completes so that
				 * write_dirty_buffer() actually writes the
				 * current contents - it is a noop if I/O is
				 * still in flight on potentially older
				 * contents.
				 */
				write_dirty_buffer(bh, REQ_SYNC);

				/*
				 * Kick off IO for the previous mapping. Note
				 * that we will not run the very last mapping,
				 * wait_on_buffer() will do that for us
				 * through sync_buffer().
				 */
				brelse(bh);
				spin_lock(lock);
			}
		}
	}

	spin_unlock(lock);
	blk_finish_plug(&plug);
	spin_lock(lock);

	while (!list_empty(&tmp)) {
		bh = BH_ENTRY(tmp.prev);
		get_bh(bh);
		mapping = bh->b_assoc_map;
		__remove_assoc_queue(bh);
		/* Avoid race with mark_buffer_dirty_inode() which does
		 * a lockless check and we rely on seeing the dirty bit */
		smp_mb();
		if (buffer_dirty(bh)) {
			list_add(&bh->b_assoc_buffers,
				 &mapping->private_list);
			bh->b_assoc_map = mapping;
		}
		spin_unlock(lock);
		wait_on_buffer(bh);
		if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
			err = -EIO;
		brelse(bh);
		spin_lock(lock);
	}
	
	spin_unlock(lock);
	err2 = osync_buffers_list(lock, list);
	if (err)
		return err;
	else
		return err2;
}

/*
 * Invalidate any and all dirty buffers on a given inode.  We are
 * probably unmounting the fs, but that doesn't mean we have already
 * done a sync().  Just drop the buffers from the inode list.
 *
 * NOTE: we take the inode's blockdev's mapping's private_lock.  Which
 * assumes that all the buffers are against the blockdev.  Not true
 * for reiserfs.
 */
void invalidate_inode_buffers(struct inode *inode)
{
	if (inode_has_buffers(inode)) {
		struct address_space *mapping = &inode->i_data;
		struct list_head *list = &mapping->private_list;
		struct address_space *buffer_mapping = mapping->private_data;

		spin_lock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
		while (!list_empty(list))
			__remove_assoc_queue(BH_ENTRY(list->next));
		spin_unlock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
	}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(invalidate_inode_buffers);

/*
 * Remove any clean buffers from the inode's buffer list.  This is called
 * when we're trying to free the inode itself.  Those buffers can pin it.
 *
 * Returns true if all buffers were removed.
 */
int remove_inode_buffers(struct inode *inode)
{
	int ret = 1;

	if (inode_has_buffers(inode)) {
		struct address_space *mapping = &inode->i_data;
		struct list_head *list = &mapping->private_list;
		struct address_space *buffer_mapping = mapping->private_data;

		spin_lock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
		while (!list_empty(list)) {
			struct buffer_head *bh = BH_ENTRY(list->next);
			if (buffer_dirty(bh)) {
				ret = 0;
				break;
			}
			__remove_assoc_queue(bh);
		}
		spin_unlock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
	}
	return ret;
}

/*
 * Create the appropriate buffers when given a page for data area and
 * the size of each buffer.. Use the bh->b_this_page linked list to
 * follow the buffers created.  Return NULL if unable to create more
 * buffers.
 *
 * The retry flag is used to differentiate async IO (paging, swapping)
 * which may not fail from ordinary buffer allocations.
 */
struct buffer_head *alloc_page_buffers(struct page *page, unsigned long size,
		int retry)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head;
	long offset;

try_again:
	head = NULL;
	offset = PAGE_SIZE;
	while ((offset -= size) >= 0) {
		bh = alloc_buffer_head(GFP_NOFS);
		if (!bh)
			goto no_grow;

		bh->b_this_page = head;
		bh->b_blocknr = -1;
		head = bh;

		bh->b_size = size;

		/* Link the buffer to its page */
		set_bh_page(bh, page, offset);
	}
	return head;
/*
 * In case anything failed, we just free everything we got.
 */
no_grow:
	if (head) {
		do {
			bh = head;
			head = head->b_this_page;
			free_buffer_head(bh);
		} while (head);
	}

	/*
	 * Return failure for non-async IO requests.  Async IO requests
	 * are not allowed to fail, so we have to wait until buffer heads
	 * become available.  But we don't want tasks sleeping with 
	 * partially complete buffers, so all were released above.
	 */
	if (!retry)
		return NULL;

	/* We're _really_ low on memory. Now we just
	 * wait for old buffer heads to become free due to
	 * finishing IO.  Since this is an async request and
	 * the reserve list is empty, we're sure there are 
	 * async buffer heads in use.
	 */
	free_more_memory();
	goto try_again;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(alloc_page_buffers);

static inline void
link_dev_buffers(struct page *page, struct buffer_head *head)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh, *tail;

	bh = head;
	do {
		tail = bh;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh);
	tail->b_this_page = head;
	attach_page_buffers(page, head);
}

static sector_t blkdev_max_block(struct block_device *bdev, unsigned int size)
{
	sector_t retval = ~((sector_t)0);
	loff_t sz = i_size_read(bdev->bd_inode);

	if (sz) {
		unsigned int sizebits = blksize_bits(size);
		retval = (sz >> sizebits);
	}
	return retval;
}

/*
 * Initialise the state of a blockdev page's buffers.
 */ 
static sector_t
init_page_buffers(struct page *page, struct block_device *bdev,
			sector_t block, int size)
{
	struct buffer_head *head = page_buffers(page);
	struct buffer_head *bh = head;
	int uptodate = PageUptodate(page);
	sector_t end_block = blkdev_max_block(I_BDEV(bdev->bd_inode), size);

	do {
		if (!buffer_mapped(bh)) {
			init_buffer(bh, NULL, NULL);
			bh->b_bdev = bdev;
			bh->b_blocknr = block;
			if (uptodate)
				set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
			if (block < end_block)
				set_buffer_mapped(bh);
		}
		block++;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);

	/*
	 * Caller needs to validate requested block against end of device.
	 */
	return end_block;
}

/*
 * Create the page-cache page that contains the requested block.
 *
 * This is used purely for blockdev mappings.
 */
static int
grow_dev_page(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block,
	      pgoff_t index, int size, int sizebits, gfp_t gfp)
{
	struct inode *inode = bdev->bd_inode;
	struct page *page;
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	sector_t end_block;
	int ret = 0;		/* Will call free_more_memory() */
	gfp_t gfp_mask;

	gfp_mask = mapping_gfp_constraint(inode->i_mapping, ~__GFP_FS) | gfp;

	/*
	 * XXX: __getblk_slow() can not really deal with failure and
	 * will endlessly loop on improvised global reclaim.  Prefer
	 * looping in the allocator rather than here, at least that
	 * code knows what it's doing.
	 */
	gfp_mask |= __GFP_NOFAIL;

	page = find_or_create_page(inode->i_mapping, index, gfp_mask);
	if (!page)
		return ret;

	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));

	if (page_has_buffers(page)) {
		bh = page_buffers(page);
		if (bh->b_size == size) {
			end_block = init_page_buffers(page, bdev,
						(sector_t)index << sizebits,
						size);
			goto done;
		}
		if (!try_to_free_buffers(page))
			goto failed;
	}

	/*
	 * Allocate some buffers for this page
	 */
	bh = alloc_page_buffers(page, size, 0);
	if (!bh)
		goto failed;

	/*
	 * Link the page to the buffers and initialise them.  Take the
	 * lock to be atomic wrt __find_get_block(), which does not
	 * run under the page lock.
	 */
	spin_lock(&inode->i_mapping->private_lock);
	link_dev_buffers(page, bh);
	end_block = init_page_buffers(page, bdev, (sector_t)index << sizebits,
			size);
	spin_unlock(&inode->i_mapping->private_lock);
done:
	ret = (block < end_block) ? 1 : -ENXIO;
failed:
	unlock_page(page);
	put_page(page);
	return ret;
}

/*
 * Create buffers for the specified block device block's page.  If
 * that page was dirty, the buffers are set dirty also.
 */
static int
grow_buffers(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block, int size, gfp_t gfp)
{
	pgoff_t index;
	int sizebits;

	sizebits = -1;
	do {
		sizebits++;
	} while ((size << sizebits) < PAGE_SIZE);

	index = block >> sizebits;

	/*
	 * Check for a block which wants to lie outside our maximum possible
	 * pagecache index.  (this comparison is done using sector_t types).
	 */
	if (unlikely(index != block >> sizebits)) {
		printk(KERN_ERR "%s: requested out-of-range block %llu for "
			"device %pg\n",
			__func__, (unsigned long long)block,
			bdev);
		return -EIO;
	}

	/* Create a page with the proper size buffers.. */
	return grow_dev_page(bdev, block, index, size, sizebits, gfp);
}

static struct buffer_head *
__getblk_slow(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block,
	     unsigned size, gfp_t gfp)
{
	/* Size must be multiple of hard sectorsize */
	if (unlikely(size & (bdev_logical_block_size(bdev)-1) ||
			(size < 512 || size > PAGE_SIZE))) {
		printk(KERN_ERR "getblk(): invalid block size %d requested\n",
					size);
		printk(KERN_ERR "logical block size: %d\n",
					bdev_logical_block_size(bdev));

		dump_stack();
		return NULL;
	}

	for (;;) {
		struct buffer_head *bh;
		int ret;

		bh = __find_get_block(bdev, block, size);
		if (bh)
			return bh;

		ret = grow_buffers(bdev, block, size, gfp);
		if (ret < 0)
			return NULL;
		if (ret == 0)
			free_more_memory();
	}
}

/*
 * The relationship between dirty buffers and dirty pages:
 *
 * Whenever a page has any dirty buffers, the page's dirty bit is set, and
 * the page is tagged dirty in its radix tree.
 *
 * At all times, the dirtiness of the buffers represents the dirtiness of
 * subsections of the page.  If the page has buffers, the page dirty bit is
 * merely a hint about the true dirty state.
 *
 * When a page is set dirty in its entirety, all its buffers are marked dirty
 * (if the page has buffers).
 *
 * When a buffer is marked dirty, its page is dirtied, but the page's other
 * buffers are not.
 *
 * Also.  When blockdev buffers are explicitly read with bread(), they
 * individually become uptodate.  But their backing page remains not
 * uptodate - even if all of its buffers are uptodate.  A subsequent
 * block_read_full_page() against that page will discover all the uptodate
 * buffers, will set the page uptodate and will perform no I/O.
 */

/**
 * mark_buffer_dirty - mark a buffer_head as needing writeout
 * @bh: the buffer_head to mark dirty
 *
 * mark_buffer_dirty() will set the dirty bit against the buffer, then set its
 * backing page dirty, then tag the page as dirty in its address_space's radix
 * tree and then attach the address_space's inode to its superblock's dirty
 * inode list.
 *
 * mark_buffer_dirty() is atomic.  It takes bh->b_page->mapping->private_lock,
 * mapping->tree_lock and mapping->host->i_lock.
 */
void mark_buffer_dirty(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	WARN_ON_ONCE(!buffer_uptodate(bh));

	trace_block_dirty_buffer(bh);

	/*
	 * Very *carefully* optimize the it-is-already-dirty case.
	 *
	 * Don't let the final "is it dirty" escape to before we
	 * perhaps modified the buffer.
	 */
	if (buffer_dirty(bh)) {
		smp_mb();
		if (buffer_dirty(bh))
			return;
	}

	if (!test_set_buffer_dirty(bh)) {
		struct page *page = bh->b_page;
		struct address_space *mapping = NULL;

		lock_page_memcg(page);
		if (!TestSetPageDirty(page)) {
			mapping = page_mapping(page);
			if (mapping)
				__set_page_dirty(page, mapping, 0);
		}
		unlock_page_memcg(page);
		if (mapping)
			__mark_inode_dirty(mapping->host, I_DIRTY_PAGES);
	}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(mark_buffer_dirty);

void mark_buffer_write_io_error(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	set_buffer_write_io_error(bh);
	/* FIXME: do we need to set this in both places? */
	if (bh->b_page && bh->b_page->mapping)
		mapping_set_error(bh->b_page->mapping, -EIO);
	if (bh->b_assoc_map)
		mapping_set_error(bh->b_assoc_map, -EIO);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(mark_buffer_write_io_error);

/*
 * Decrement a buffer_head's reference count.  If all buffers against a page
 * have zero reference count, are clean and unlocked, and if the page is clean
 * and unlocked then try_to_free_buffers() may strip the buffers from the page
 * in preparation for freeing it (sometimes, rarely, buffers are removed from
 * a page but it ends up not being freed, and buffers may later be reattached).
 */
void __brelse(struct buffer_head * buf)
{
	if (atomic_read(&buf->b_count)) {
		put_bh(buf);
		return;
	}
	WARN(1, KERN_ERR "VFS: brelse: Trying to free free buffer\n");
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__brelse);

/*
 * bforget() is like brelse(), except it discards any
 * potentially dirty data.
 */
void __bforget(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	clear_buffer_dirty(bh);
	if (bh->b_assoc_map) {
		struct address_space *buffer_mapping = bh->b_page->mapping;

		spin_lock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
		list_del_init(&bh->b_assoc_buffers);
		bh->b_assoc_map = NULL;
		spin_unlock(&buffer_mapping->private_lock);
	}
	__brelse(bh);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__bforget);

static struct buffer_head *__bread_slow(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	lock_buffer(bh);
	if (buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
		unlock_buffer(bh);
		return bh;
	} else {
		get_bh(bh);
		bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_read_sync;
		submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, 0, bh);
		wait_on_buffer(bh);
		if (buffer_uptodate(bh))
			return bh;
	}
	brelse(bh);
	return NULL;
}

/*
 * Per-cpu buffer LRU implementation.  To reduce the cost of __find_get_block().
 * The bhs[] array is sorted - newest buffer is at bhs[0].  Buffers have their
 * refcount elevated by one when they're in an LRU.  A buffer can only appear
 * once in a particular CPU's LRU.  A single buffer can be present in multiple
 * CPU's LRUs at the same time.
 *
 * This is a transparent caching front-end to sb_bread(), sb_getblk() and
 * sb_find_get_block().
 *
 * The LRUs themselves only need locking against invalidate_bh_lrus.  We use
 * a local interrupt disable for that.
 */

#define BH_LRU_SIZE	16

struct bh_lru {
	struct buffer_head *bhs[BH_LRU_SIZE];
};

static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct bh_lru, bh_lrus) = {{ NULL }};

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
#define bh_lru_lock()	local_irq_disable()
#define bh_lru_unlock()	local_irq_enable()
#else
#define bh_lru_lock()	preempt_disable()
#define bh_lru_unlock()	preempt_enable()
#endif

static inline void check_irqs_on(void)
{
#ifdef irqs_disabled
	BUG_ON(irqs_disabled());
#endif
}

/*
 * Install a buffer_head into this cpu's LRU.  If not already in the LRU, it is
 * inserted at the front, and the buffer_head at the back if any is evicted.
 * Or, if already in the LRU it is moved to the front.
 */
static void bh_lru_install(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	struct buffer_head *evictee = bh;
	struct bh_lru *b;
	int i;

	check_irqs_on();
	bh_lru_lock();

	b = this_cpu_ptr(&bh_lrus);
	for (i = 0; i < BH_LRU_SIZE; i++) {
		swap(evictee, b->bhs[i]);
		if (evictee == bh) {
			bh_lru_unlock();
			return;
		}
	}

	get_bh(bh);
	bh_lru_unlock();
	brelse(evictee);
}

/*
 * Look up the bh in this cpu's LRU.  If it's there, move it to the head.
 */
static struct buffer_head *
lookup_bh_lru(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block, unsigned size)
{
	struct buffer_head *ret = NULL;
	unsigned int i;

	check_irqs_on();
	bh_lru_lock();
	for (i = 0; i < BH_LRU_SIZE; i++) {
		struct buffer_head *bh = __this_cpu_read(bh_lrus.bhs[i]);

		if (bh && bh->b_blocknr == block && bh->b_bdev == bdev &&
		    bh->b_size == size) {
			if (i) {
				while (i) {
					__this_cpu_write(bh_lrus.bhs[i],
						__this_cpu_read(bh_lrus.bhs[i - 1]));
					i--;
				}
				__this_cpu_write(bh_lrus.bhs[0], bh);
			}
			get_bh(bh);
			ret = bh;
			break;
		}
	}
	bh_lru_unlock();
	return ret;
}

/*
 * Perform a pagecache lookup for the matching buffer.  If it's there, refresh
 * it in the LRU and mark it as accessed.  If it is not present then return
 * NULL
 */
struct buffer_head *
__find_get_block(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block, unsigned size)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh = lookup_bh_lru(bdev, block, size);

	if (bh == NULL) {
		/* __find_get_block_slow will mark the page accessed */
		bh = __find_get_block_slow(bdev, block);
		if (bh)
			bh_lru_install(bh);
	} else
		touch_buffer(bh);

	return bh;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__find_get_block);

/*
 * __getblk_gfp() will locate (and, if necessary, create) the buffer_head
 * which corresponds to the passed block_device, block and size. The
 * returned buffer has its reference count incremented.
 *
 * __getblk_gfp() will lock up the machine if grow_dev_page's
 * try_to_free_buffers() attempt is failing.  FIXME, perhaps?
 */
struct buffer_head *
__getblk_gfp(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block,
	     unsigned size, gfp_t gfp)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh = __find_get_block(bdev, block, size);

	might_sleep();
	if (bh == NULL)
		bh = __getblk_slow(bdev, block, size, gfp);
	return bh;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__getblk_gfp);

/*
 * Do async read-ahead on a buffer..
 */
void __breadahead(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block, unsigned size)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh = __getblk(bdev, block, size);
	if (likely(bh)) {
		ll_rw_block(REQ_OP_READ, REQ_RAHEAD, 1, &bh);
		brelse(bh);
	}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__breadahead);

/**
 *  __bread_gfp() - reads a specified block and returns the bh
 *  @bdev: the block_device to read from
 *  @block: number of block
 *  @size: size (in bytes) to read
 *  @gfp: page allocation flag
 *
 *  Reads a specified block, and returns buffer head that contains it.
 *  The page cache can be allocated from non-movable area
 *  not to prevent page migration if you set gfp to zero.
 *  It returns NULL if the block was unreadable.
 */
struct buffer_head *
__bread_gfp(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block,
		   unsigned size, gfp_t gfp)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh = __getblk_gfp(bdev, block, size, gfp);

	if (likely(bh) && !buffer_uptodate(bh))
		bh = __bread_slow(bh);
	return bh;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__bread_gfp);

/*
 * invalidate_bh_lrus() is called rarely - but not only at unmount.
 * This doesn't race because it runs in each cpu either in irq
 * or with preempt disabled.
 */
static void invalidate_bh_lru(void *arg)
{
	struct bh_lru *b = &get_cpu_var(bh_lrus);
	int i;

	for (i = 0; i < BH_LRU_SIZE; i++) {
		brelse(b->bhs[i]);
		b->bhs[i] = NULL;
	}
	put_cpu_var(bh_lrus);
}

static bool has_bh_in_lru(int cpu, void *dummy)
{
	struct bh_lru *b = per_cpu_ptr(&bh_lrus, cpu);
	int i;
	
	for (i = 0; i < BH_LRU_SIZE; i++) {
		if (b->bhs[i])
			return 1;
	}

	return 0;
}

void invalidate_bh_lrus(void)
{
	on_each_cpu_cond(has_bh_in_lru, invalidate_bh_lru, NULL, 1, GFP_KERNEL);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(invalidate_bh_lrus);

void set_bh_page(struct buffer_head *bh,
		struct page *page, unsigned long offset)
{
	bh->b_page = page;
	BUG_ON(offset >= PAGE_SIZE);
	if (PageHighMem(page))
		/*
		 * This catches illegal uses and preserves the offset:
		 */
		bh->b_data = (char *)(0 + offset);
	else
		bh->b_data = page_address(page) + offset;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(set_bh_page);

/*
 * Called when truncating a buffer on a page completely.
 */

/* Bits that are cleared during an invalidate */
#define BUFFER_FLAGS_DISCARD \
	(1 << BH_Mapped | 1 << BH_New | 1 << BH_Req | \
	 1 << BH_Delay | 1 << BH_Unwritten)

static void discard_buffer(struct buffer_head * bh)
{
	unsigned long b_state, b_state_old;

	lock_buffer(bh);
	clear_buffer_dirty(bh);
	bh->b_bdev = NULL;
	b_state = bh->b_state;
	for (;;) {
		b_state_old = cmpxchg(&bh->b_state, b_state,
				      (b_state & ~BUFFER_FLAGS_DISCARD));
		if (b_state_old == b_state)
			break;
		b_state = b_state_old;
	}
	unlock_buffer(bh);
}

/**
 * block_invalidatepage - invalidate part or all of a buffer-backed page
 *
 * @page: the page which is affected
 * @offset: start of the range to invalidate
 * @length: length of the range to invalidate
 *
 * block_invalidatepage() is called when all or part of the page has become
 * invalidated by a truncate operation.
 *
 * block_invalidatepage() does not have to release all buffers, but it must
 * ensure that no dirty buffer is left outside @offset and that no I/O
 * is underway against any of the blocks which are outside the truncation
 * point.  Because the caller is about to free (and possibly reuse) those
 * blocks on-disk.
 */
void block_invalidatepage(struct page *page, unsigned int offset,
			  unsigned int length)
{
	struct buffer_head *head, *bh, *next;
	unsigned int curr_off = 0;
	unsigned int stop = length + offset;

	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));
	if (!page_has_buffers(page))
		goto out;

	/*
	 * Check for overflow
	 */
	BUG_ON(stop > PAGE_SIZE || stop < length);

	head = page_buffers(page);
	bh = head;
	do {
		unsigned int next_off = curr_off + bh->b_size;
		next = bh->b_this_page;

		/*
		 * Are we still fully in range ?
		 */
		if (next_off > stop)
			goto out;

		/*
		 * is this block fully invalidated?
		 */
		if (offset <= curr_off)
			discard_buffer(bh);
		curr_off = next_off;
		bh = next;
	} while (bh != head);

	/*
	 * We release buffers only if the entire page is being invalidated.
	 * The get_block cached value has been unconditionally invalidated,
	 * so real IO is not possible anymore.
	 */
	if (offset == 0)
		try_to_release_page(page, 0);
out:
	return;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_invalidatepage);


/*
 * We attach and possibly dirty the buffers atomically wrt
 * __set_page_dirty_buffers() via private_lock.  try_to_free_buffers
 * is already excluded via the page lock.
 */
void create_empty_buffers(struct page *page,
			unsigned long blocksize, unsigned long b_state)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head, *tail;

	head = alloc_page_buffers(page, blocksize, 1);
	bh = head;
	do {
		bh->b_state |= b_state;
		tail = bh;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh);
	tail->b_this_page = head;

	spin_lock(&page->mapping->private_lock);
	if (PageUptodate(page) || PageDirty(page)) {
		bh = head;
		do {
			if (PageDirty(page))
				set_buffer_dirty(bh);
			if (PageUptodate(page))
				set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
			bh = bh->b_this_page;
		} while (bh != head);
	}
	attach_page_buffers(page, head);
	spin_unlock(&page->mapping->private_lock);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(create_empty_buffers);

/**
 * clean_bdev_aliases: clean a range of buffers in block device
 * @bdev: Block device to clean buffers in
 * @block: Start of a range of blocks to clean
 * @len: Number of blocks to clean
 *
 * We are taking a range of blocks for data and we don't want writeback of any
 * buffer-cache aliases starting from return from this function and until the
 * moment when something will explicitly mark the buffer dirty (hopefully that
 * will not happen until we will free that block ;-) We don't even need to mark
 * it not-uptodate - nobody can expect anything from a newly allocated buffer
 * anyway. We used to use unmap_buffer() for such invalidation, but that was
 * wrong. We definitely don't want to mark the alias unmapped, for example - it
 * would confuse anyone who might pick it with bread() afterwards...
 *
 * Also..  Note that bforget() doesn't lock the buffer.  So there can be
 * writeout I/O going on against recently-freed buffers.  We don't wait on that
 * I/O in bforget() - it's more efficient to wait on the I/O only if we really
 * need to.  That happens here.
 */
void clean_bdev_aliases(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t block, sector_t len)
{
	struct inode *bd_inode = bdev->bd_inode;
	struct address_space *bd_mapping = bd_inode->i_mapping;
	struct pagevec pvec;
	pgoff_t index = block >> (PAGE_SHIFT - bd_inode->i_blkbits);
	pgoff_t end;
	int i;
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	struct buffer_head *head;

	end = (block + len - 1) >> (PAGE_SHIFT - bd_inode->i_blkbits);
	pagevec_init(&pvec, 0);
	while (index <= end && pagevec_lookup(&pvec, bd_mapping, index,
			min(end - index, (pgoff_t)PAGEVEC_SIZE - 1) + 1)) {
		for (i = 0; i < pagevec_count(&pvec); i++) {
			struct page *page = pvec.pages[i];

			index = page->index;
			if (index > end)
				break;
			if (!page_has_buffers(page))
				continue;
			/*
			 * We use page lock instead of bd_mapping->private_lock
			 * to pin buffers here since we can afford to sleep and
			 * it scales better than a global spinlock lock.
			 */
			lock_page(page);
			/* Recheck when the page is locked which pins bhs */
			if (!page_has_buffers(page))
				goto unlock_page;
			head = page_buffers(page);
			bh = head;
			do {
				if (!buffer_mapped(bh) || (bh->b_blocknr < block))
					goto next;
				if (bh->b_blocknr >= block + len)
					break;
				clear_buffer_dirty(bh);
				wait_on_buffer(bh);
				clear_buffer_req(bh);
next:
				bh = bh->b_this_page;
			} while (bh != head);
unlock_page:
			unlock_page(page);
		}
		pagevec_release(&pvec);
		cond_resched();
		index++;
	}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(clean_bdev_aliases);

/*
 * Size is a power-of-two in the range 512..PAGE_SIZE,
 * and the case we care about most is PAGE_SIZE.
 *
 * So this *could* possibly be written with those
 * constraints in mind (relevant mostly if some
 * architecture has a slow bit-scan instruction)
 */
static inline int block_size_bits(unsigned int blocksize)
{
	return ilog2(blocksize);
}

static struct buffer_head *create_page_buffers(struct page *page, struct inode *inode, unsigned int b_state)
{
	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));

	if (!page_has_buffers(page))
		create_empty_buffers(page, 1 << ACCESS_ONCE(inode->i_blkbits), b_state);
	return page_buffers(page);
}

/*
 * NOTE! All mapped/uptodate combinations are valid:
 *
 *	Mapped	Uptodate	Meaning
 *
 *	No	No		"unknown" - must do get_block()
 *	No	Yes		"hole" - zero-filled
 *	Yes	No		"allocated" - allocated on disk, not read in
 *	Yes	Yes		"valid" - allocated and up-to-date in memory.
 *
 * "Dirty" is valid only with the last case (mapped+uptodate).
 */

/*
 * While block_write_full_page is writing back the dirty buffers under
 * the page lock, whoever dirtied the buffers may decide to clean them
 * again at any time.  We handle that by only looking at the buffer
 * state inside lock_buffer().
 *
 * If block_write_full_page() is called for regular writeback
 * (wbc->sync_mode == WB_SYNC_NONE) then it will redirty a page which has a
 * locked buffer.   This only can happen if someone has written the buffer
 * directly, with submit_bh().  At the address_space level PageWriteback
 * prevents this contention from occurring.
 *
 * If block_write_full_page() is called with wbc->sync_mode ==
 * WB_SYNC_ALL, the writes are posted using REQ_SYNC; this
 * causes the writes to be flagged as synchronous writes.
 */
int __block_write_full_page(struct inode *inode, struct page *page,
			get_block_t *get_block, struct writeback_control *wbc,
			bh_end_io_t *handler)
{
	int err;
	sector_t block;
	sector_t last_block;
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head;
	unsigned int blocksize, bbits;
	int nr_underway = 0;
	int write_flags = wbc_to_write_flags(wbc);

	head = create_page_buffers(page, inode,
					(1 << BH_Dirty)|(1 << BH_Uptodate));

	/*
	 * Be very careful.  We have no exclusion from __set_page_dirty_buffers
	 * here, and the (potentially unmapped) buffers may become dirty at
	 * any time.  If a buffer becomes dirty here after we've inspected it
	 * then we just miss that fact, and the page stays dirty.
	 *
	 * Buffers outside i_size may be dirtied by __set_page_dirty_buffers;
	 * handle that here by just cleaning them.
	 */

	bh = head;
	blocksize = bh->b_size;
	bbits = block_size_bits(blocksize);

	block = (sector_t)page->index << (PAGE_SHIFT - bbits);
	last_block = (i_size_read(inode) - 1) >> bbits;

	/*
	 * Get all the dirty buffers mapped to disk addresses and
	 * handle any aliases from the underlying blockdev's mapping.
	 */
	do {
		if (block > last_block) {
			/*
			 * mapped buffers outside i_size will occur, because
			 * this page can be outside i_size when there is a
			 * truncate in progress.
			 */
			/*
			 * The buffer was zeroed by block_write_full_page()
			 */
			clear_buffer_dirty(bh);
			set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
		} else if ((!buffer_mapped(bh) || buffer_delay(bh)) &&
			   buffer_dirty(bh)) {
			WARN_ON(bh->b_size != blocksize);
			err = get_block(inode, block, bh, 1);
			if (err)
				goto recover;
			clear_buffer_delay(bh);
			if (buffer_new(bh)) {
				/* blockdev mappings never come here */
				clear_buffer_new(bh);
				clean_bdev_bh_alias(bh);
			}
		}
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
		block++;
	} while (bh != head);

	do {
		if (!buffer_mapped(bh))
			continue;
		/*
		 * If it's a fully non-blocking write attempt and we cannot
		 * lock the buffer then redirty the page.  Note that this can
		 * potentially cause a busy-wait loop from writeback threads
		 * and kswapd activity, but those code paths have their own
		 * higher-level throttling.
		 */
		if (wbc->sync_mode != WB_SYNC_NONE) {
			lock_buffer(bh);
		} else if (!trylock_buffer(bh)) {
			redirty_page_for_writepage(wbc, page);
			continue;
		}
		if (test_clear_buffer_dirty(bh)) {
			mark_buffer_async_write_endio(bh, handler);
		} else {
			unlock_buffer(bh);
		}
	} while ((bh = bh->b_this_page) != head);

	/*
	 * The page and its buffers are protected by PageWriteback(), so we can
	 * drop the bh refcounts early.
	 */
	BUG_ON(PageWriteback(page));
	set_page_writeback(page);

	do {
		struct buffer_head *next = bh->b_this_page;
		if (buffer_async_write(bh)) {
			submit_bh_wbc(REQ_OP_WRITE, write_flags, bh,
					inode->i_write_hint, wbc);
			nr_underway++;
		}
		bh = next;
	} while (bh != head);
	unlock_page(page);

	err = 0;
done:
	if (nr_underway == 0) {
		/*
		 * The page was marked dirty, but the buffers were
		 * clean.  Someone wrote them back by hand with
		 * ll_rw_block/submit_bh.  A rare case.
		 */
		end_page_writeback(page);

		/*
		 * The page and buffer_heads can be released at any time from
		 * here on.
		 */
	}
	return err;

recover:
	/*
	 * ENOSPC, or some other error.  We may already have added some
	 * blocks to the file, so we need to write these out to avoid
	 * exposing stale data.
	 * The page is currently locked and not marked for writeback
	 */
	bh = head;
	/* Recovery: lock and submit the mapped buffers */
	do {
		if (buffer_mapped(bh) && buffer_dirty(bh) &&
		    !buffer_delay(bh)) {
			lock_buffer(bh);
			mark_buffer_async_write_endio(bh, handler);
		} else {
			/*
			 * The buffer may have been set dirty during
			 * attachment to a dirty page.
			 */
			clear_buffer_dirty(bh);
		}
	} while ((bh = bh->b_this_page) != head);
	SetPageError(page);
	BUG_ON(PageWriteback(page));
	mapping_set_error(page->mapping, err);
	set_page_writeback(page);
	do {
		struct buffer_head *next = bh->b_this_page;
		if (buffer_async_write(bh)) {
			clear_buffer_dirty(bh);
			submit_bh_wbc(REQ_OP_WRITE, write_flags, bh,
					inode->i_write_hint, wbc);
			nr_underway++;
		}
		bh = next;
	} while (bh != head);
	unlock_page(page);
	goto done;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__block_write_full_page);

/*
 * If a page has any new buffers, zero them out here, and mark them uptodate
 * and dirty so they'll be written out (in order to prevent uninitialised
 * block data from leaking). And clear the new bit.
 */
void page_zero_new_buffers(struct page *page, unsigned from, unsigned to)
{
	unsigned int block_start, block_end;
	struct buffer_head *head, *bh;

	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));
	if (!page_has_buffers(page))
		return;

	bh = head = page_buffers(page);
	block_start = 0;
	do {
		block_end = block_start + bh->b_size;

		if (buffer_new(bh)) {
			if (block_end > from && block_start < to) {
				if (!PageUptodate(page)) {
					unsigned start, size;

					start = max(from, block_start);
					size = min(to, block_end) - start;

					zero_user(page, start, size);
					set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
				}

				clear_buffer_new(bh);
				mark_buffer_dirty(bh);
			}
		}

		block_start = block_end;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_zero_new_buffers);

static void
iomap_to_bh(struct inode *inode, sector_t block, struct buffer_head *bh,
		struct iomap *iomap)
{
	loff_t offset = block << inode->i_blkbits;

	bh->b_bdev = iomap->bdev;

	/*
	 * Block points to offset in file we need to map, iomap contains
	 * the offset at which the map starts. If the map ends before the
	 * current block, then do not map the buffer and let the caller
	 * handle it.
	 */
	BUG_ON(offset >= iomap->offset + iomap->length);

	switch (iomap->type) {
	case IOMAP_HOLE:
		/*
		 * If the buffer is not up to date or beyond the current EOF,
		 * we need to mark it as new to ensure sub-block zeroing is
		 * executed if necessary.
		 */
		if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) ||
		    (offset >= i_size_read(inode)))
			set_buffer_new(bh);
		break;
	case IOMAP_DELALLOC:
		if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) ||
		    (offset >= i_size_read(inode)))
			set_buffer_new(bh);
		set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
		set_buffer_mapped(bh);
		set_buffer_delay(bh);
		break;
	case IOMAP_UNWRITTEN:
		/*
		 * For unwritten regions, we always need to ensure that
		 * sub-block writes cause the regions in the block we are not
		 * writing to are zeroed. Set the buffer as new to ensure this.
		 */
		set_buffer_new(bh);
		set_buffer_unwritten(bh);
		/* FALLTHRU */
	case IOMAP_MAPPED:
		if (offset >= i_size_read(inode))
			set_buffer_new(bh);
		bh->b_blocknr = (iomap->blkno >> (inode->i_blkbits - 9)) +
				((offset - iomap->offset) >> inode->i_blkbits);
		set_buffer_mapped(bh);
		break;
	}
}

int __block_write_begin_int(struct page *page, loff_t pos, unsigned len,
		get_block_t *get_block, struct iomap *iomap)
{
	unsigned from = pos & (PAGE_SIZE - 1);
	unsigned to = from + len;
	struct inode *inode = page->mapping->host;
	unsigned block_start, block_end;
	sector_t block;
	int err = 0;
	unsigned blocksize, bbits;
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head, *wait[2], **wait_bh=wait;

	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));
	BUG_ON(from > PAGE_SIZE);
	BUG_ON(to > PAGE_SIZE);
	BUG_ON(from > to);

	head = create_page_buffers(page, inode, 0);
	blocksize = head->b_size;
	bbits = block_size_bits(blocksize);

	block = (sector_t)page->index << (PAGE_SHIFT - bbits);

	for(bh = head, block_start = 0; bh != head || !block_start;
	    block++, block_start=block_end, bh = bh->b_this_page) {
		block_end = block_start + blocksize;
		if (block_end <= from || block_start >= to) {
			if (PageUptodate(page)) {
				if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
					set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
			}
			continue;
		}
		if (buffer_new(bh))
			clear_buffer_new(bh);
		if (!buffer_mapped(bh)) {
			WARN_ON(bh->b_size != blocksize);
			if (get_block) {
				err = get_block(inode, block, bh, 1);
				if (err)
					break;
			} else {
				iomap_to_bh(inode, block, bh, iomap);
			}

			if (buffer_new(bh)) {
				clean_bdev_bh_alias(bh);
				if (PageUptodate(page)) {
					clear_buffer_new(bh);
					set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
					mark_buffer_dirty(bh);
					continue;
				}
				if (block_end > to || block_start < from)
					zero_user_segments(page,
						to, block_end,
						block_start, from);
				continue;
			}
		}
		if (PageUptodate(page)) {
			if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
				set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
			continue; 
		}
		if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) && !buffer_delay(bh) &&
		    !buffer_unwritten(bh) &&
		     (block_start < from || block_end > to)) {
			ll_rw_block(REQ_OP_READ, 0, 1, &bh);
			*wait_bh++=bh;
		}
	}
	/*
	 * If we issued read requests - let them complete.
	 */
	while(wait_bh > wait) {
		wait_on_buffer(*--wait_bh);
		if (!buffer_uptodate(*wait_bh))
			err = -EIO;
	}
	if (unlikely(err))
		page_zero_new_buffers(page, from, to);
	return err;
}

int __block_write_begin(struct page *page, loff_t pos, unsigned len,
		get_block_t *get_block)
{
	return __block_write_begin_int(page, pos, len, get_block, NULL);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__block_write_begin);

static int __block_commit_write(struct inode *inode, struct page *page,
		unsigned from, unsigned to)
{
	unsigned block_start, block_end;
	int partial = 0;
	unsigned blocksize;
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head;

	bh = head = page_buffers(page);
	blocksize = bh->b_size;

	block_start = 0;
	do {
		block_end = block_start + blocksize;
		if (block_end <= from || block_start >= to) {
			if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
				partial = 1;
		} else {
			set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
			mark_buffer_dirty(bh);
		}
		clear_buffer_new(bh);

		block_start = block_end;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);

	/*
	 * If this is a partial write which happened to make all buffers
	 * uptodate then we can optimize away a bogus readpage() for
	 * the next read(). Here we 'discover' whether the page went
	 * uptodate as a result of this (potentially partial) write.
	 */
	if (!partial)
		SetPageUptodate(page);
	return 0;
}

/*
 * block_write_begin takes care of the basic task of block allocation and
 * bringing partial write blocks uptodate first.
 *
 * The filesystem needs to handle block truncation upon failure.
 */
int block_write_begin(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t pos, unsigned len,
		unsigned flags, struct page **pagep, get_block_t *get_block)
{
	pgoff_t index = pos >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	struct page *page;
	int status;

	page = grab_cache_page_write_begin(mapping, index, flags);
	if (!page)
		return -ENOMEM;

	status = __block_write_begin(page, pos, len, get_block);
	if (unlikely(status)) {
		unlock_page(page);
		put_page(page);
		page = NULL;
	}

	*pagep = page;
	return status;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_write_begin);

int block_write_end(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
			struct page *page, void *fsdata)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	unsigned start;

	start = pos & (PAGE_SIZE - 1);

	if (unlikely(copied < len)) {
		/*
		 * The buffers that were written will now be uptodate, so we
		 * don't have to worry about a readpage reading them and
		 * overwriting a partial write. However if we have encountered
		 * a short write and only partially written into a buffer, it
		 * will not be marked uptodate, so a readpage might come in and
		 * destroy our partial write.
		 *
		 * Do the simplest thing, and just treat any short write to a
		 * non uptodate page as a zero-length write, and force the
		 * caller to redo the whole thing.
		 */
		if (!PageUptodate(page))
			copied = 0;

		page_zero_new_buffers(page, start+copied, start+len);
	}
	flush_dcache_page(page);

	/* This could be a short (even 0-length) commit */
	__block_commit_write(inode, page, start, start+copied);

	return copied;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_write_end);

int generic_write_end(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
			struct page *page, void *fsdata)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	loff_t old_size = inode->i_size;
	int i_size_changed = 0;

	copied = block_write_end(file, mapping, pos, len, copied, page, fsdata);

	/*
	 * No need to use i_size_read() here, the i_size
	 * cannot change under us because we hold i_mutex.
	 *
	 * But it's important to update i_size while still holding page lock:
	 * page writeout could otherwise come in and zero beyond i_size.
	 */
	if (pos+copied > inode->i_size) {
		i_size_write(inode, pos+copied);
		i_size_changed = 1;
	}

	unlock_page(page);
	put_page(page);

	if (old_size < pos)
		pagecache_isize_extended(inode, old_size, pos);
	/*
	 * Don't mark the inode dirty under page lock. First, it unnecessarily
	 * makes the holding time of page lock longer. Second, it forces lock
	 * ordering of page lock and transaction start for journaling
	 * filesystems.
	 */
	if (i_size_changed)
		mark_inode_dirty(inode);

	return copied;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_write_end);

/*
 * block_is_partially_uptodate checks whether buffers within a page are
 * uptodate or not.
 *
 * Returns true if all buffers which correspond to a file portion
 * we want to read are uptodate.
 */
int block_is_partially_uptodate(struct page *page, unsigned long from,
					unsigned long count)
{
	unsigned block_start, block_end, blocksize;
	unsigned to;
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head;
	int ret = 1;

	if (!page_has_buffers(page))
		return 0;

	head = page_buffers(page);
	blocksize = head->b_size;
	to = min_t(unsigned, PAGE_SIZE - from, count);
	to = from + to;
	if (from < blocksize && to > PAGE_SIZE - blocksize)
		return 0;

	bh = head;
	block_start = 0;
	do {
		block_end = block_start + blocksize;
		if (block_end > from && block_start < to) {
			if (!buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
				ret = 0;
				break;
			}
			if (block_end >= to)
				break;
		}
		block_start = block_end;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);

	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_is_partially_uptodate);

/*
 * Generic "read page" function for block devices that have the normal
 * get_block functionality. This is most of the block device filesystems.
 * Reads the page asynchronously --- the unlock_buffer() and
 * set/clear_buffer_uptodate() functions propagate buffer state into the
 * page struct once IO has completed.
 */
int block_read_full_page(struct page *page, get_block_t *get_block)
{
	struct inode *inode = page->mapping->host;
	sector_t iblock, lblock;
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head, *arr[MAX_BUF_PER_PAGE];
	unsigned int blocksize, bbits;
	int nr, i;
	int fully_mapped = 1;

	head = create_page_buffers(page, inode, 0);
	blocksize = head->b_size;
	bbits = block_size_bits(blocksize);

	iblock = (sector_t)page->index << (PAGE_SHIFT - bbits);
	lblock = (i_size_read(inode)+blocksize-1) >> bbits;
	bh = head;
	nr = 0;
	i = 0;

	do {
		if (buffer_uptodate(bh))
			continue;

		if (!buffer_mapped(bh)) {
			int err = 0;

			fully_mapped = 0;
			if (iblock < lblock) {
				WARN_ON(bh->b_size != blocksize);
				err = get_block(inode, iblock, bh, 0);
				if (err)
					SetPageError(page);
			}
			if (!buffer_mapped(bh)) {
				zero_user(page, i * blocksize, blocksize);
				if (!err)
					set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
				continue;
			}
			/*
			 * get_block() might have updated the buffer
			 * synchronously
			 */
			if (buffer_uptodate(bh))
				continue;
		}
		arr[nr++] = bh;
	} while (i++, iblock++, (bh = bh->b_this_page) != head);

	if (fully_mapped)
		SetPageMappedToDisk(page);

	if (!nr) {
		/*
		 * All buffers are uptodate - we can set the page uptodate
		 * as well. But not if get_block() returned an error.
		 */
		if (!PageError(page))
			SetPageUptodate(page);
		unlock_page(page);
		return 0;
	}

	/* Stage two: lock the buffers */
	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
		bh = arr[i];
		lock_buffer(bh);
		mark_buffer_async_read(bh);
	}

	/*
	 * Stage 3: start the IO.  Check for uptodateness
	 * inside the buffer lock in case another process reading
	 * the underlying blockdev brought it uptodate (the sct fix).
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
		bh = arr[i];
		if (buffer_uptodate(bh))
			end_buffer_async_read(bh, 1);
		else
			submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, 0, bh);
	}
	return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_read_full_page);

/* utility function for filesystems that need to do work on expanding
 * truncates.  Uses filesystem pagecache writes to allow the filesystem to
 * deal with the hole.  
 */
int generic_cont_expand_simple(struct inode *inode, loff_t size)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = inode->i_mapping;
	struct page *page;
	void *fsdata;
	int err;

	err = inode_newsize_ok(inode, size);
	if (err)
		goto out;

	err = pagecache_write_begin(NULL, mapping, size, 0,
				    AOP_FLAG_CONT_EXPAND, &page, &fsdata);
	if (err)
		goto out;

	err = pagecache_write_end(NULL, mapping, size, 0, 0, page, fsdata);
	BUG_ON(err > 0);

out:
	return err;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_cont_expand_simple);

static int cont_expand_zero(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			    loff_t pos, loff_t *bytes)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	unsigned int blocksize = i_blocksize(inode);
	struct page *page;
	void *fsdata;
	pgoff_t index, curidx;
	loff_t curpos;
	unsigned zerofrom, offset, len;
	int err = 0;

	index = pos >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	offset = pos & ~PAGE_MASK;

	while (index > (curidx = (curpos = *bytes)>>PAGE_SHIFT)) {
		zerofrom = curpos & ~PAGE_MASK;
		if (zerofrom & (blocksize-1)) {
			*bytes |= (blocksize-1);
			(*bytes)++;
		}
		len = PAGE_SIZE - zerofrom;

		err = pagecache_write_begin(file, mapping, curpos, len, 0,
					    &page, &fsdata);
		if (err)
			goto out;
		zero_user(page, zerofrom, len);
		err = pagecache_write_end(file, mapping, curpos, len, len,
						page, fsdata);
		if (err < 0)
			goto out;
		BUG_ON(err != len);
		err = 0;

		balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited(mapping);

		if (unlikely(fatal_signal_pending(current))) {
			err = -EINTR;
			goto out;
		}
	}

	/* page covers the boundary, find the boundary offset */
	if (index == curidx) {
		zerofrom = curpos & ~PAGE_MASK;
		/* if we will expand the thing last block will be filled */
		if (offset <= zerofrom) {
			goto out;
		}
		if (zerofrom & (blocksize-1)) {
			*bytes |= (blocksize-1);
			(*bytes)++;
		}
		len = offset - zerofrom;

		err = pagecache_write_begin(file, mapping, curpos, len, 0,
					    &page, &fsdata);
		if (err)
			goto out;
		zero_user(page, zerofrom, len);
		err = pagecache_write_end(file, mapping, curpos, len, len,
						page, fsdata);
		if (err < 0)
			goto out;
		BUG_ON(err != len);
		err = 0;
	}
out:
	return err;
}

/*
 * For moronic filesystems that do not allow holes in file.
 * We may have to extend the file.
 */
int cont_write_begin(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
			struct page **pagep, void **fsdata,
			get_block_t *get_block, loff_t *bytes)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	unsigned int blocksize = i_blocksize(inode);
	unsigned int zerofrom;
	int err;

	err = cont_expand_zero(file, mapping, pos, bytes);
	if (err)
		return err;

	zerofrom = *bytes & ~PAGE_MASK;
	if (pos+len > *bytes && zerofrom & (blocksize-1)) {
		*bytes |= (blocksize-1);
		(*bytes)++;
	}

	return block_write_begin(mapping, pos, len, flags, pagep, get_block);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(cont_write_begin);

int block_commit_write(struct page *page, unsigned from, unsigned to)
{
	struct inode *inode = page->mapping->host;
	__block_commit_write(inode,page,from,to);
	return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_commit_write);

/*
 * block_page_mkwrite() is not allowed to change the file size as it gets
 * called from a page fault handler when a page is first dirtied. Hence we must
 * be careful to check for EOF conditions here. We set the page up correctly
 * for a written page which means we get ENOSPC checking when writing into
 * holes and correct delalloc and unwritten extent mapping on filesystems that
 * support these features.
 *
 * We are not allowed to take the i_mutex here so we have to play games to
 * protect against truncate races as the page could now be beyond EOF.  Because
 * truncate writes the inode size before removing pages, once we have the
 * page lock we can determine safely if the page is beyond EOF. If it is not
 * beyond EOF, then the page is guaranteed safe against truncation until we
 * unlock the page.
 *
 * Direct callers of this function should protect against filesystem freezing
 * using sb_start_pagefault() - sb_end_pagefault() functions.
 */
int block_page_mkwrite(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct vm_fault *vmf,
			 get_block_t get_block)
{
	struct page *page = vmf->page;
	struct inode *inode = file_inode(vma->vm_file);
	unsigned long end;
	loff_t size;
	int ret;

	lock_page(page);
	size = i_size_read(inode);
	if ((page->mapping != inode->i_mapping) ||
	    (page_offset(page) > size)) {
		/* We overload EFAULT to mean page got truncated */
		ret = -EFAULT;
		goto out_unlock;
	}

	/* page is wholly or partially inside EOF */
	if (((page->index + 1) << PAGE_SHIFT) > size)
		end = size & ~PAGE_MASK;
	else
		end = PAGE_SIZE;

	ret = __block_write_begin(page, 0, end, get_block);
	if (!ret)
		ret = block_commit_write(page, 0, end);

	if (unlikely(ret < 0))
		goto out_unlock;
	set_page_dirty(page);
	wait_for_stable_page(page);
	return 0;
out_unlock:
	unlock_page(page);
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_page_mkwrite);

/*
 * nobh_write_begin()'s prereads are special: the buffer_heads are freed
 * immediately, while under the page lock.  So it needs a special end_io
 * handler which does not touch the bh after unlocking it.
 */
static void end_buffer_read_nobh(struct buffer_head *bh, int uptodate)
{
	__end_buffer_read_notouch(bh, uptodate);
}

/*
 * Attach the singly-linked list of buffers created by nobh_write_begin, to
 * the page (converting it to circular linked list and taking care of page
 * dirty races).
 */
static void attach_nobh_buffers(struct page *page, struct buffer_head *head)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh;

	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));

	spin_lock(&page->mapping->private_lock);
	bh = head;
	do {
		if (PageDirty(page))
			set_buffer_dirty(bh);
		if (!bh->b_this_page)
			bh->b_this_page = head;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);
	attach_page_buffers(page, head);
	spin_unlock(&page->mapping->private_lock);
}

/*
 * On entry, the page is fully not uptodate.
 * On exit the page is fully uptodate in the areas outside (from,to)
 * The filesystem needs to handle block truncation upon failure.
 */
int nobh_write_begin(struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
			struct page **pagep, void **fsdata,
			get_block_t *get_block)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	const unsigned blkbits = inode->i_blkbits;
	const unsigned blocksize = 1 << blkbits;
	struct buffer_head *head, *bh;
	struct page *page;
	pgoff_t index;
	unsigned from, to;
	unsigned block_in_page;
	unsigned block_start, block_end;
	sector_t block_in_file;
	int nr_reads = 0;
	int ret = 0;
	int is_mapped_to_disk = 1;

	index = pos >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	from = pos & (PAGE_SIZE - 1);
	to = from + len;

	page = grab_cache_page_write_begin(mapping, index, flags);
	if (!page)
		return -ENOMEM;
	*pagep = page;
	*fsdata = NULL;

	if (page_has_buffers(page)) {
		ret = __block_write_begin(page, pos, len, get_block);
		if (unlikely(ret))
			goto out_release;
		return ret;
	}

	if (PageMappedToDisk(page))
		return 0;

	/*
	 * Allocate buffers so that we can keep track of state, and potentially
	 * attach them to the page if an error occurs. In the common case of
	 * no error, they will just be freed again without ever being attached
	 * to the page (which is all OK, because we're under the page lock).
	 *
	 * Be careful: the buffer linked list is a NULL terminated one, rather
	 * than the circular one we're used to.
	 */
	head = alloc_page_buffers(page, blocksize, 0);
	if (!head) {
		ret = -ENOMEM;
		goto out_release;
	}

	block_in_file = (sector_t)page->index << (PAGE_SHIFT - blkbits);

	/*
	 * We loop across all blocks in the page, whether or not they are
	 * part of the affected region.  This is so we can discover if the
	 * page is fully mapped-to-disk.
	 */
	for (block_start = 0, block_in_page = 0, bh = head;
		  block_start < PAGE_SIZE;
		  block_in_page++, block_start += blocksize, bh = bh->b_this_page) {
		int create;

		block_end = block_start + blocksize;
		bh->b_state = 0;
		create = 1;
		if (block_start >= to)
			create = 0;
		ret = get_block(inode, block_in_file + block_in_page,
					bh, create);
		if (ret)
			goto failed;
		if (!buffer_mapped(bh))
			is_mapped_to_disk = 0;
		if (buffer_new(bh))
			clean_bdev_bh_alias(bh);
		if (PageUptodate(page)) {
			set_buffer_uptodate(bh);
			continue;
		}
		if (buffer_new(bh) || !buffer_mapped(bh)) {
			zero_user_segments(page, block_start, from,
							to, block_end);
			continue;
		}
		if (buffer_uptodate(bh))
			continue;	/* reiserfs does this */
		if (block_start < from || block_end > to) {
			lock_buffer(bh);
			bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_read_nobh;
			submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, 0, bh);
			nr_reads++;
		}
	}

	if (nr_reads) {
		/*
		 * The page is locked, so these buffers are protected from
		 * any VM or truncate activity.  Hence we don't need to care
		 * for the buffer_head refcounts.
		 */
		for (bh = head; bh; bh = bh->b_this_page) {
			wait_on_buffer(bh);
			if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
				ret = -EIO;
		}
		if (ret)
			goto failed;
	}

	if (is_mapped_to_disk)
		SetPageMappedToDisk(page);

	*fsdata = head; /* to be released by nobh_write_end */

	return 0;

failed:
	BUG_ON(!ret);
	/*
	 * Error recovery is a bit difficult. We need to zero out blocks that
	 * were newly allocated, and dirty them to ensure they get written out.
	 * Buffers need to be attached to the page at this point, otherwise
	 * the handling of potential IO errors during writeout would be hard
	 * (could try doing synchronous writeout, but what if that fails too?)
	 */
	attach_nobh_buffers(page, head);
	page_zero_new_buffers(page, from, to);

out_release:
	unlock_page(page);
	put_page(page);
	*pagep = NULL;

	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nobh_write_begin);

int nobh_write_end(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
			struct page *page, void *fsdata)
{
	struct inode *inode = page->mapping->host;
	struct buffer_head *head = fsdata;
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	BUG_ON(fsdata != NULL && page_has_buffers(page));

	if (unlikely(copied < len) && head)
		attach_nobh_buffers(page, head);
	if (page_has_buffers(page))
		return generic_write_end(file, mapping, pos, len,
					copied, page, fsdata);

	SetPageUptodate(page);
	set_page_dirty(page);
	if (pos+copied > inode->i_size) {
		i_size_write(inode, pos+copied);
		mark_inode_dirty(inode);
	}

	unlock_page(page);
	put_page(page);

	while (head) {
		bh = head;
		head = head->b_this_page;
		free_buffer_head(bh);
	}

	return copied;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nobh_write_end);

/*
 * nobh_writepage() - based on block_full_write_page() except
 * that it tries to operate without attaching bufferheads to
 * the page.
 */
int nobh_writepage(struct page *page, get_block_t *get_block,
			struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
	struct inode * const inode = page->mapping->host;
	loff_t i_size = i_size_read(inode);
	const pgoff_t end_index = i_size >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	unsigned offset;
	int ret;

	/* Is the page fully inside i_size? */
	if (page->index < end_index)
		goto out;

	/* Is the page fully outside i_size? (truncate in progress) */
	offset = i_size & (PAGE_SIZE-1);
	if (page->index >= end_index+1 || !offset) {
		/*
		 * The page may have dirty, unmapped buffers.  For example,
		 * they may have been added in ext3_writepage().  Make them
		 * freeable here, so the page does not leak.
		 */
#if 0
		/* Not really sure about this  - do we need this ? */
		if (page->mapping->a_ops->invalidatepage)
			page->mapping->a_ops->invalidatepage(page, offset);
#endif
		unlock_page(page);
		return 0; /* don't care */
	}

	/*
	 * The page straddles i_size.  It must be zeroed out on each and every
	 * writepage invocation because it may be mmapped.  "A file is mapped
	 * in multiples of the page size.  For a file that is not a multiple of
	 * the  page size, the remaining memory is zeroed when mapped, and
	 * writes to that region are not written out to the file."
	 */
	zero_user_segment(page, offset, PAGE_SIZE);
out:
	ret = mpage_writepage(page, get_block, wbc);
	if (ret == -EAGAIN)
		ret = __block_write_full_page(inode, page, get_block, wbc,
					      end_buffer_async_write);
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nobh_writepage);

int nobh_truncate_page(struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t from, get_block_t *get_block)
{
	pgoff_t index = from >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	unsigned offset = from & (PAGE_SIZE-1);
	unsigned blocksize;
	sector_t iblock;
	unsigned length, pos;
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct page *page;
	struct buffer_head map_bh;
	int err;

	blocksize = i_blocksize(inode);
	length = offset & (blocksize - 1);

	/* Block boundary? Nothing to do */
	if (!length)
		return 0;

	length = blocksize - length;
	iblock = (sector_t)index << (PAGE_SHIFT - inode->i_blkbits);

	page = grab_cache_page(mapping, index);
	err = -ENOMEM;
	if (!page)
		goto out;

	if (page_has_buffers(page)) {
has_buffers:
		unlock_page(page);
		put_page(page);
		return block_truncate_page(mapping, from, get_block);
	}

	/* Find the buffer that contains "offset" */
	pos = blocksize;
	while (offset >= pos) {
		iblock++;
		pos += blocksize;
	}

	map_bh.b_size = blocksize;
	map_bh.b_state = 0;
	err = get_block(inode, iblock, &map_bh, 0);
	if (err)
		goto unlock;
	/* unmapped? It's a hole - nothing to do */
	if (!buffer_mapped(&map_bh))
		goto unlock;

	/* Ok, it's mapped. Make sure it's up-to-date */
	if (!PageUptodate(page)) {
		err = mapping->a_ops->readpage(NULL, page);
		if (err) {
			put_page(page);
			goto out;
		}
		lock_page(page);
		if (!PageUptodate(page)) {
			err = -EIO;
			goto unlock;
		}
		if (page_has_buffers(page))
			goto has_buffers;
	}
	zero_user(page, offset, length);
	set_page_dirty(page);
	err = 0;

unlock:
	unlock_page(page);
	put_page(page);
out:
	return err;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nobh_truncate_page);

int block_truncate_page(struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t from, get_block_t *get_block)
{
	pgoff_t index = from >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	unsigned offset = from & (PAGE_SIZE-1);
	unsigned blocksize;
	sector_t iblock;
	unsigned length, pos;
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct page *page;
	struct buffer_head *bh;
	int err;

	blocksize = i_blocksize(inode);
	length = offset & (blocksize - 1);

	/* Block boundary? Nothing to do */
	if (!length)
		return 0;

	length = blocksize - length;
	iblock = (sector_t)index << (PAGE_SHIFT - inode->i_blkbits);
	
	page = grab_cache_page(mapping, index);
	err = -ENOMEM;
	if (!page)
		goto out;

	if (!page_has_buffers(page))
		create_empty_buffers(page, blocksize, 0);

	/* Find the buffer that contains "offset" */
	bh = page_buffers(page);
	pos = blocksize;
	while (offset >= pos) {
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
		iblock++;
		pos += blocksize;
	}

	err = 0;
	if (!buffer_mapped(bh)) {
		WARN_ON(bh->b_size != blocksize);
		err = get_block(inode, iblock, bh, 0);
		if (err)
			goto unlock;
		/* unmapped? It's a hole - nothing to do */
		if (!buffer_mapped(bh))
			goto unlock;
	}

	/* Ok, it's mapped. Make sure it's up-to-date */
	if (PageUptodate(page))
		set_buffer_uptodate(bh);

	if (!buffer_uptodate(bh) && !buffer_delay(bh) && !buffer_unwritten(bh)) {
		err = -EIO;
		ll_rw_block(REQ_OP_READ, 0, 1, &bh);
		wait_on_buffer(bh);
		/* Uhhuh. Read error. Complain and punt. */
		if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
			goto unlock;
	}

	zero_user(page, offset, length);
	mark_buffer_dirty(bh);
	err = 0;

unlock:
	unlock_page(page);
	put_page(page);
out:
	return err;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_truncate_page);

/*
 * The generic ->writepage function for buffer-backed address_spaces
 */
int block_write_full_page(struct page *page, get_block_t *get_block,
			struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
	struct inode * const inode = page->mapping->host;
	loff_t i_size = i_size_read(inode);
	const pgoff_t end_index = i_size >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	unsigned offset;

	/* Is the page fully inside i_size? */
	if (page->index < end_index)
		return __block_write_full_page(inode, page, get_block, wbc,
					       end_buffer_async_write);

	/* Is the page fully outside i_size? (truncate in progress) */
	offset = i_size & (PAGE_SIZE-1);
	if (page->index >= end_index+1 || !offset) {
		/*
		 * The page may have dirty, unmapped buffers.  For example,
		 * they may have been added in ext3_writepage().  Make them
		 * freeable here, so the page does not leak.
		 */
		do_invalidatepage(page, 0, PAGE_SIZE);
		unlock_page(page);
		return 0; /* don't care */
	}

	/*
	 * The page straddles i_size.  It must be zeroed out on each and every
	 * writepage invocation because it may be mmapped.  "A file is mapped
	 * in multiples of the page size.  For a file that is not a multiple of
	 * the  page size, the remaining memory is zeroed when mapped, and
	 * writes to that region are not written out to the file."
	 */
	zero_user_segment(page, offset, PAGE_SIZE);
	return __block_write_full_page(inode, page, get_block, wbc,
							end_buffer_async_write);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(block_write_full_page);

sector_t generic_block_bmap(struct address_space *mapping, sector_t block,
			    get_block_t *get_block)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct buffer_head tmp = {
		.b_size = i_blocksize(inode),
	};

	get_block(inode, block, &tmp, 0);
	return tmp.b_blocknr;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(generic_block_bmap);

static void end_bio_bh_io_sync(struct bio *bio)
{
	struct buffer_head *bh = bio->bi_private;

	if (unlikely(bio_flagged(bio, BIO_QUIET)))
		set_bit(BH_Quiet, &bh->b_state);

	bh->b_end_io(bh, !bio->bi_status);
	bio_put(bio);
}

/*
 * This allows us to do IO even on the odd last sectors
 * of a device, even if the block size is some multiple
 * of the physical sector size.
 *
 * We'll just truncate the bio to the size of the device,
 * and clear the end of the buffer head manually.
 *
 * Truly out-of-range accesses will turn into actual IO
 * errors, this only handles the "we need to be able to
 * do IO at the final sector" case.
 */
void guard_bio_eod(int op, struct bio *bio)
{
	sector_t maxsector;
	struct bio_vec *bvec = &bio->bi_io_vec[bio->bi_vcnt - 1];
	unsigned truncated_bytes;

	maxsector = i_size_read(bio->bi_bdev->bd_inode) >> 9;
	if (!maxsector)
		return;

	/*
	 * If the *whole* IO is past the end of the device,
	 * let it through, and the IO layer will turn it into
	 * an EIO.
	 */
	if (unlikely(bio->bi_iter.bi_sector >= maxsector))
		return;

	maxsector -= bio->bi_iter.bi_sector;
	if (likely((bio->bi_iter.bi_size >> 9) <= maxsector))
		return;

	/* Uhhuh. We've got a bio that straddles the device size! */
	truncated_bytes = bio->bi_iter.bi_size - (maxsector << 9);

	/* Truncate the bio.. */
	bio->bi_iter.bi_size -= truncated_bytes;
	bvec->bv_len -= truncated_bytes;

	/* ..and clear the end of the buffer for reads */
	if (op == REQ_OP_READ) {
		zero_user(bvec->bv_page, bvec->bv_offset + bvec->bv_len,
				truncated_bytes);
	}
}

static int submit_bh_wbc(int op, int op_flags, struct buffer_head *bh,
			 enum rw_hint write_hint, struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
	struct bio *bio;

	BUG_ON(!buffer_locked(bh));
	BUG_ON(!buffer_mapped(bh));
	BUG_ON(!bh->b_end_io);
	BUG_ON(buffer_delay(bh));
	BUG_ON(buffer_unwritten(bh));

	/*
	 * Only clear out a write error when rewriting
	 */
	if (test_set_buffer_req(bh) && (op == REQ_OP_WRITE))
		clear_buffer_write_io_error(bh);

	/*
	 * from here on down, it's all bio -- do the initial mapping,
	 * submit_bio -> generic_make_request may further map this bio around
	 */
	bio = bio_alloc(GFP_NOIO, 1);

	if (wbc) {
		wbc_init_bio(wbc, bio);
		wbc_account_io(wbc, bh->b_page, bh->b_size);
	}

	bio->bi_iter.bi_sector = bh->b_blocknr * (bh->b_size >> 9);
	bio->bi_bdev = bh->b_bdev;
	bio->bi_write_hint = write_hint;

	bio_add_page(bio, bh->b_page, bh->b_size, bh_offset(bh));
	BUG_ON(bio->bi_iter.bi_size != bh->b_size);

	bio->bi_end_io = end_bio_bh_io_sync;
	bio->bi_private = bh;

	/* Take care of bh's that straddle the end of the device */
	guard_bio_eod(op, bio);

	if (buffer_meta(bh))
		op_flags |= REQ_META;
	if (buffer_prio(bh))
		op_flags |= REQ_PRIO;
	bio_set_op_attrs(bio, op, op_flags);

	submit_bio(bio);
	return 0;
}

int submit_bh(int op, int op_flags, struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	return submit_bh_wbc(op, op_flags, bh, 0, NULL);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(submit_bh);

/**
 * ll_rw_block: low-level access to block devices (DEPRECATED)
 * @op: whether to %READ or %WRITE
 * @op_flags: req_flag_bits
 * @nr: number of &struct buffer_heads in the array
 * @bhs: array of pointers to &struct buffer_head
 *
 * ll_rw_block() takes an array of pointers to &struct buffer_heads, and
 * requests an I/O operation on them, either a %REQ_OP_READ or a %REQ_OP_WRITE.
 * @op_flags contains flags modifying the detailed I/O behavior, most notably
 * %REQ_RAHEAD.
 *
 * This function drops any buffer that it cannot get a lock on (with the
 * BH_Lock state bit), any buffer that appears to be clean when doing a write
 * request, and any buffer that appears to be up-to-date when doing read
 * request.  Further it marks as clean buffers that are processed for
 * writing (the buffer cache won't assume that they are actually clean
 * until the buffer gets unlocked).
 *
 * ll_rw_block sets b_end_io to simple completion handler that marks
 * the buffer up-to-date (if appropriate), unlocks the buffer and wakes
 * any waiters. 
 *
 * All of the buffers must be for the same device, and must also be a
 * multiple of the current approved size for the device.
 */
void ll_rw_block(int op, int op_flags,  int nr, struct buffer_head *bhs[])
{
	int i;

	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
		struct buffer_head *bh = bhs[i];

		if (!trylock_buffer(bh))
			continue;
		if (op == WRITE) {
			if (test_clear_buffer_dirty(bh)) {
				bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_write_sync;
				get_bh(bh);
				submit_bh(op, op_flags, bh);
				continue;
			}
		} else {
			if (!buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
				bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_read_sync;
				get_bh(bh);
				submit_bh(op, op_flags, bh);
				continue;
			}
		}
		unlock_buffer(bh);
	}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(ll_rw_block);

void write_dirty_buffer(struct buffer_head *bh, int op_flags)
{
	lock_buffer(bh);
	if (!test_clear_buffer_dirty(bh)) {
		unlock_buffer(bh);
		return;
	}
	bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_write_sync;
	get_bh(bh);
	submit_bh(REQ_OP_WRITE, op_flags, bh);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(write_dirty_buffer);

/*
 * For a data-integrity writeout, we need to wait upon any in-progress I/O
 * and then start new I/O and then wait upon it.  The caller must have a ref on
 * the buffer_head.
 */
int __sync_dirty_buffer(struct buffer_head *bh, int op_flags)
{
	int ret = 0;

	WARN_ON(atomic_read(&bh->b_count) < 1);
	lock_buffer(bh);
	if (test_clear_buffer_dirty(bh)) {
		get_bh(bh);
		bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_write_sync;
		ret = submit_bh(REQ_OP_WRITE, op_flags, bh);
		wait_on_buffer(bh);
		if (!ret && !buffer_uptodate(bh))
			ret = -EIO;
	} else {
		unlock_buffer(bh);
	}
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__sync_dirty_buffer);

int sync_dirty_buffer(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	return __sync_dirty_buffer(bh, REQ_SYNC);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(sync_dirty_buffer);

/*
 * try_to_free_buffers() checks if all the buffers on this particular page
 * are unused, and releases them if so.
 *
 * Exclusion against try_to_free_buffers may be obtained by either
 * locking the page or by holding its mapping's private_lock.
 *
 * If the page is dirty but all the buffers are clean then we need to
 * be sure to mark the page clean as well.  This is because the page
 * may be against a block device, and a later reattachment of buffers
 * to a dirty page will set *all* buffers dirty.  Which would corrupt
 * filesystem data on the same device.
 *
 * The same applies to regular filesystem pages: if all the buffers are
 * clean then we set the page clean and proceed.  To do that, we require
 * total exclusion from __set_page_dirty_buffers().  That is obtained with
 * private_lock.
 *
 * try_to_free_buffers() is non-blocking.
 */
static inline int buffer_busy(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	return atomic_read(&bh->b_count) |
		(bh->b_state & ((1 << BH_Dirty) | (1 << BH_Lock)));
}

static int
drop_buffers(struct page *page, struct buffer_head **buffers_to_free)
{
	struct buffer_head *head = page_buffers(page);
	struct buffer_head *bh;

	bh = head;
	do {
		if (buffer_busy(bh))
			goto failed;
		bh = bh->b_this_page;
	} while (bh != head);

	do {
		struct buffer_head *next = bh->b_this_page;

		if (bh->b_assoc_map)
			__remove_assoc_queue(bh);
		bh = next;
	} while (bh != head);
	*buffers_to_free = head;
	__clear_page_buffers(page);
	return 1;
failed:
	return 0;
}

int try_to_free_buffers(struct page *page)
{
	struct address_space * const mapping = page->mapping;
	struct buffer_head *buffers_to_free = NULL;
	int ret = 0;

	BUG_ON(!PageLocked(page));
	if (PageWriteback(page))
		return 0;

	if (mapping == NULL) {		/* can this still happen? */
		ret = drop_buffers(page, &buffers_to_free);
		goto out;
	}

	spin_lock(&mapping->private_lock);
	ret = drop_buffers(page, &buffers_to_free);

	/*
	 * If the filesystem writes its buffers by hand (eg ext3)
	 * then we can have clean buffers against a dirty page.  We
	 * clean the page here; otherwise the VM will never notice
	 * that the filesystem did any IO at all.
	 *
	 * Also, during truncate, discard_buffer will have marked all
	 * the page's buffers clean.  We discover that here and clean
	 * the page also.
	 *
	 * private_lock must be held over this entire operation in order
	 * to synchronise against __set_page_dirty_buffers and prevent the
	 * dirty bit from being lost.
	 */
	if (ret)
		cancel_dirty_page(page);
	spin_unlock(&mapping->private_lock);
out:
	if (buffers_to_free) {
		struct buffer_head *bh = buffers_to_free;

		do {
			struct buffer_head *next = bh->b_this_page;
			free_buffer_head(bh);
			bh = next;
		} while (bh != buffers_to_free);
	}
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(try_to_free_buffers);

/*
 * There are no bdflush tunables left.  But distributions are
 * still running obsolete flush daemons, so we terminate them here.
 *
 * Use of bdflush() is deprecated and will be removed in a future kernel.
 * The `flush-X' kernel threads fully replace bdflush daemons and this call.
 */
SYSCALL_DEFINE2(bdflush, int, func, long, data)
{
	static int msg_count;

	if (!capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
		return -EPERM;

	if (msg_count < 5) {
		msg_count++;
		printk(KERN_INFO
			"warning: process `%s' used the obsolete bdflush"
			" system call\n", current->comm);
		printk(KERN_INFO "Fix your initscripts?\n");
	}

	if (func == 1)
		do_exit(0);
	return 0;
}

/*
 * Buffer-head allocation
 */
static struct kmem_cache *bh_cachep __read_mostly;

/*
 * Once the number of bh's in the machine exceeds this level, we start
 * stripping them in writeback.
 */
static unsigned long max_buffer_heads;

int buffer_heads_over_limit;

struct bh_accounting {
	int nr;			/* Number of live bh's */
	int ratelimit;		/* Limit cacheline bouncing */
};

static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct bh_accounting, bh_accounting) = {0, 0};

static void recalc_bh_state(void)
{
	int i;
	int tot = 0;

	if (__this_cpu_inc_return(bh_accounting.ratelimit) - 1 < 4096)
		return;
	__this_cpu_write(bh_accounting.ratelimit, 0);
	for_each_online_cpu(i)
		tot += per_cpu(bh_accounting, i).nr;
	buffer_heads_over_limit = (tot > max_buffer_heads);
}

struct buffer_head *alloc_buffer_head(gfp_t gfp_flags)
{
	struct buffer_head *ret = kmem_cache_zalloc(bh_cachep, gfp_flags);
	if (ret) {
		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ret->b_assoc_buffers);
		preempt_disable();
		__this_cpu_inc(bh_accounting.nr);
		recalc_bh_state();
		preempt_enable();
	}
	return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(alloc_buffer_head);

void free_buffer_head(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	BUG_ON(!list_empty(&bh->b_assoc_buffers));
	kmem_cache_free(bh_cachep, bh);
	preempt_disable();
	__this_cpu_dec(bh_accounting.nr);
	recalc_bh_state();
	preempt_enable();
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(free_buffer_head);

static int buffer_exit_cpu_dead(unsigned int cpu)
{
	int i;
	struct bh_lru *b = &per_cpu(bh_lrus, cpu);

	for (i = 0; i < BH_LRU_SIZE; i++) {
		brelse(b->bhs[i]);
		b->bhs[i] = NULL;
	}
	this_cpu_add(bh_accounting.nr, per_cpu(bh_accounting, cpu).nr);
	per_cpu(bh_accounting, cpu).nr = 0;
	return 0;
}

/**
 * bh_uptodate_or_lock - Test whether the buffer is uptodate
 * @bh: struct buffer_head
 *
 * Return true if the buffer is up-to-date and false,
 * with the buffer locked, if not.
 */
int bh_uptodate_or_lock(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	if (!buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
		lock_buffer(bh);
		if (!buffer_uptodate(bh))
			return 0;
		unlock_buffer(bh);
	}
	return 1;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(bh_uptodate_or_lock);

/**
 * bh_submit_read - Submit a locked buffer for reading
 * @bh: struct buffer_head
 *
 * Returns zero on success and -EIO on error.
 */
int bh_submit_read(struct buffer_head *bh)
{
	BUG_ON(!buffer_locked(bh));

	if (buffer_uptodate(bh)) {
		unlock_buffer(bh);
		return 0;
	}

	get_bh(bh);
	bh->b_end_io = end_buffer_read_sync;
	submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, 0, bh);
	wait_on_buffer(bh);
	if (buffer_uptodate(bh))
		return 0;
	return -EIO;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(bh_submit_read);

/*
 * Seek for SEEK_DATA / SEEK_HOLE within @page, starting at @lastoff.
 *
 * Returns the offset within the file on success, and -ENOENT otherwise.
 */
static loff_t
page_seek_hole_data(struct page *page, loff_t lastoff, int whence)
{
	loff_t offset = page_offset(page);
	struct buffer_head *bh, *head;
	bool seek_data = whence == SEEK_DATA;

	if (lastoff < offset)
		lastoff = offset;

	bh = head = page_buffers(page);
	do {
		offset += bh->b_size;
		if (lastoff >= offset)
			continue;

		/*
		 * Unwritten extents that have data in the page cache covering
		 * them can be identified by the BH_Unwritten state flag.
		 * Pages with multiple buffers might have a mix of holes, data
		 * and unwritten extents - any buffer with valid data in it
		 * should have BH_Uptodate flag set on it.
		 */

		if ((buffer_unwritten(bh) || buffer_uptodate(bh)) == seek_data)
			return lastoff;

		lastoff = offset;
	} while ((bh = bh->b_this_page) != head);
	return -ENOENT;
}

/*
 * Seek for SEEK_DATA / SEEK_HOLE in the page cache.
 *
 * Within unwritten extents, the page cache determines which parts are holes
 * and which are data: unwritten and uptodate buffer heads count as data;
 * everything else counts as a hole.
 *
 * Returns the resulting offset on successs, and -ENOENT otherwise.
 */
loff_t
page_cache_seek_hole_data(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, loff_t length,
			  int whence)
{
	pgoff_t index = offset >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	pgoff_t end = DIV_ROUND_UP(offset + length, PAGE_SIZE);
	loff_t lastoff = offset;
	struct pagevec pvec;

	if (length <= 0)
		return -ENOENT;

	pagevec_init(&pvec, 0);

	do {
		unsigned want, nr_pages, i;

		want = min_t(unsigned, end - index, PAGEVEC_SIZE);
		nr_pages = pagevec_lookup(&pvec, inode->i_mapping, index, want);
		if (nr_pages == 0)
			break;

		for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
			struct page *page = pvec.pages[i];

			/*
			 * At this point, the page may be truncated or
			 * invalidated (changing page->mapping to NULL), or
			 * even swizzled back from swapper_space to tmpfs file
			 * mapping.  However, page->index will not change
			 * because we have a reference on the page.
                         *
			 * If current page offset is beyond where we've ended,
			 * we've found a hole.
                         */
			if (whence == SEEK_HOLE &&
			    lastoff < page_offset(page))
				goto check_range;

			/* Searching done if the page index is out of range. */
			if (page->index >= end)
				goto not_found;

			lock_page(page);
			if (likely(page->mapping == inode->i_mapping) &&
			    page_has_buffers(page)) {
				lastoff = page_seek_hole_data(page, lastoff, whence);
				if (lastoff >= 0) {
					unlock_page(page);
					goto check_range;
				}
			}
			unlock_page(page);
			lastoff = page_offset(page) + PAGE_SIZE;
		}

		/* Searching done if fewer pages returned than wanted. */
		if (nr_pages < want)
			break;

		index = pvec.pages[i - 1]->index + 1;
		pagevec_release(&pvec);
	} while (index < end);

	/* When no page at lastoff and we are not done, we found a hole. */
	if (whence != SEEK_HOLE)
		goto not_found;

check_range:
	if (lastoff < offset + length)
		goto out;
not_found:
	lastoff = -ENOENT;
out:
	pagevec_release(&pvec);
	return lastoff;
}

void __init buffer_init(void)
{
	unsigned long nrpages;
	int ret;

	bh_cachep = kmem_cache_create("buffer_head",
			sizeof(struct buffer_head), 0,
				(SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT|SLAB_PANIC|
				SLAB_MEM_SPREAD),
				NULL);

	/*
	 * Limit the bh occupancy to 10% of ZONE_NORMAL
	 */
	nrpages = (nr_free_buffer_pages() * 10) / 100;
	max_buffer_heads = nrpages * (PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(struct buffer_head));
	ret = cpuhp_setup_state_nocalls(CPUHP_FS_BUFF_DEAD, "fs/buffer:dead",
					NULL, buffer_exit_cpu_dead);
	WARN_ON(ret < 0);
}