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If variable is of Type,		use printk format specifier:
		int			%d or %x
		unsigned int		%u or %x
		long			%ld or %lx
		unsigned long		%lu or %lx
		long long		%lld or %llx
		unsigned long long	%llu or %llx
		size_t			%zu or %zx
		ssize_t			%zd or %zx
		s32			%d or %x
		u32			%u or %x
		s64			%lld or %llx
		u64			%llu or %llx

If <type> is dependent on a config option for its size (e.g., sector_t,
blkcnt_t) or is architecture-dependent for its size (e.g., tcflag_t), use a
format specifier of its largest possible type and explicitly cast to it.

	printk("test: sector number/total blocks: %llu/%llu\n",
		(unsigned long long)sector, (unsigned long long)blockcount);

Reminder: sizeof() result is of type size_t.

The kernel's printf does not support %n. For obvious reasons, floating
point formats (%e, %f, %g, %a) are also not recognized. Use of any
unsupported specifier or length qualifier results in a WARN and early
return from vsnprintf.

Raw pointer value SHOULD be printed with %p. The kernel supports
the following extended format specifiers for pointer types:

Symbols/Function Pointers:

	%pF	versatile_init+0x0/0x110
	%pf	versatile_init
	%pS	versatile_init+0x0/0x110
	%pSR	versatile_init+0x9/0x110
		(with __builtin_extract_return_addr() translation)
	%ps	versatile_init
	%pB	prev_fn_of_versatile_init+0x88/0x88

	For printing symbols and function pointers. The 'S' and 's' specifiers
	result in the symbol name with ('S') or without ('s') offsets. Where
	this is used on a kernel without KALLSYMS - the symbol address is
	printed instead.

	The 'B' specifier results in the symbol name with offsets and should be
	used when printing stack backtraces. The specifier takes into
	consideration the effect of compiler optimisations which may occur
	when tail-call's are used and marked with the noreturn GCC attribute.

	On ia64, ppc64 and parisc64 architectures function pointers are
	actually function descriptors which must first be resolved. The 'F' and
	'f' specifiers perform this resolution and then provide the same
	functionality as the 'S' and 's' specifiers.

Kernel Pointers:

	%pK	0x01234567 or 0x0123456789abcdef

	For printing kernel pointers which should be hidden from unprivileged
	users. The behaviour of %pK depends on the kptr_restrict sysctl - see
	Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt for more details.

Struct Resources:

	%pr	[mem 0x60000000-0x6fffffff flags 0x2200] or
		[mem 0x0000000060000000-0x000000006fffffff flags 0x2200]
	%pR	[mem 0x60000000-0x6fffffff pref] or
		[mem 0x0000000060000000-0x000000006fffffff pref]

	For printing struct resources. The 'R' and 'r' specifiers result in a
	printed resource with ('R') or without ('r') a decoded flags member.
	Passed by reference.

Physical addresses types phys_addr_t:

	%pa[p]	0x01234567 or 0x0123456789abcdef

	For printing a phys_addr_t type (and its derivatives, such as
	resource_size_t) which can vary based on build options, regardless of
	the width of the CPU data path. Passed by reference.

DMA addresses types dma_addr_t:

	%pad	0x01234567 or 0x0123456789abcdef

	For printing a dma_addr_t type which can vary based on build options,
	regardless of the width of the CPU data path. Passed by reference.

Raw buffer as an escaped string:


	For printing raw buffer as an escaped string. For the following buffer

		1b 62 20 5c 43 07 22 90 0d 5d

	few examples show how the conversion would be done (the result string
	without surrounding quotes):

		%*pE		"\eb \C\a"\220\r]"
		%*pEhp		"\x1bb \C\x07"\x90\x0d]"
		%*pEa		"\e\142\040\\\103\a\042\220\r\135"

	The conversion rules are applied according to an optional combination
	of flags (see string_escape_mem() kernel documentation for the
	By default ESCAPE_ANY_NP is used.

	ESCAPE_ANY_NP is the sane choice for many cases, in particularly for
	printing SSIDs.

	If field width is omitted the 1 byte only will be escaped.

Raw buffer as a hex string:

	%*ph	00 01 02  ...  3f
	%*phC	00:01:02: ... :3f
	%*phD	00-01-02- ... -3f
	%*phN	000102 ... 3f

	For printing a small buffers (up to 64 bytes long) as a hex string with
	certain separator. For the larger buffers consider to use

MAC/FDDI addresses:

	%pM	00:01:02:03:04:05
	%pMR	05:04:03:02:01:00
	%pMF	00-01-02-03-04-05
	%pm	000102030405
	%pmR	050403020100

	For printing 6-byte MAC/FDDI addresses in hex notation. The 'M' and 'm'
	specifiers result in a printed address with ('M') or without ('m') byte
	separators. The default byte separator is the colon (':').

	Where FDDI addresses are concerned the 'F' specifier can be used after
	the 'M' specifier to use dash ('-') separators instead of the default

	For Bluetooth addresses the 'R' specifier shall be used after the 'M'
	specifier to use reversed byte order suitable for visual interpretation
	of Bluetooth addresses which are in the little endian order.

	Passed by reference.

IPv4 addresses:


	For printing IPv4 dot-separated decimal addresses. The 'I4' and 'i4'
	specifiers result in a printed address with ('i4') or without ('I4')
	leading zeros.

	The additional 'h', 'n', 'b', and 'l' specifiers are used to specify
	host, network, big or little endian order addresses respectively. Where
	no specifier is provided the default network/big endian order is used.

	Passed by reference.

IPv6 addresses:

	%pI6	0001:0002:0003:0004:0005:0006:0007:0008
	%pi6	00010002000300040005000600070008
	%pI6c	1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8

	For printing IPv6 network-order 16-bit hex addresses. The 'I6' and 'i6'
	specifiers result in a printed address with ('I6') or without ('i6')
	colon-separators. Leading zeros are always used.

	The additional 'c' specifier can be used with the 'I' specifier to
	print a compressed IPv6 address as described by

	Passed by reference.

IPv4/IPv6 addresses (generic, with port, flowinfo, scope):

	%pIS		or 0001:0002:0003:0004:0005:0006:0007:0008
	%piS	or 00010002000300040005000600070008
	%pISc		or 1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8
	%pISpc	or [1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:12345

	For printing an IP address without the need to distinguish whether it's
	of type AF_INET or AF_INET6, a pointer to a valid 'struct sockaddr',
	specified through 'IS' or 'iS', can be passed to this format specifier.

	The additional 'p', 'f', and 's' specifiers are used to specify port
	(IPv4, IPv6), flowinfo (IPv6) and scope (IPv6). Ports have a ':' prefix,
	flowinfo a '/' and scope a '%', each followed by the actual value.

	In case of an IPv6 address the compressed IPv6 address as described by is being used if the additional
	specifier 'c' is given. The IPv6 address is surrounded by '[', ']' in
	case of additional specifiers 'p', 'f' or 's' as suggested by

	In case of IPv4 addresses, the additional 'h', 'n', 'b', and 'l'
	specifiers can be used as well and are ignored in case of an IPv6

	Passed by reference.

	Further examples:

	%pISfc		or [1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]/123456789
	%pISsc		or [1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]%1234567890
	%pISpfc	or [1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:12345/123456789

UUID/GUID addresses:

	%pUb	00010203-0405-0607-0809-0a0b0c0d0e0f
	%pUB	00010203-0405-0607-0809-0A0B0C0D0E0F
	%pUl	03020100-0504-0706-0809-0a0b0c0e0e0f
	%pUL	03020100-0504-0706-0809-0A0B0C0E0E0F

	For printing 16-byte UUID/GUIDs addresses. The additional 'l', 'L',
	'b' and 'B' specifiers are used to specify a little endian order in
	lower ('l') or upper case ('L') hex characters - and big endian order
	in lower ('b') or upper case ('B') hex characters.

	Where no additional specifiers are used the default big endian
	order with lower case hex characters will be printed.

	Passed by reference.

dentry names:


	For printing dentry name; if we race with d_move(), the name might be
	a mix of old and new ones, but it won't oops.  %pd dentry is a safer
	equivalent of %s dentry-> we used to use, %pd<n> prints
	n last components.  %pD does the same thing for struct file.

	Passed by reference.

block_device names:

	%pg	sda, sda1 or loop0p1

	For printing name of block_device pointers.

struct va_format:


	For printing struct va_format structures. These contain a format string
	and va_list as follows:

	struct va_format {
		const char *fmt;
		va_list *va;

	Implements a "recursive vsnprintf".

	Do not use this feature without some mechanism to verify the
	correctness of the format string and va_list arguments.

	Passed by reference.

struct clk:

	%pC	pll1
	%pCn	pll1
	%pCr	1560000000

	For printing struct clk structures. '%pC' and '%pCn' print the name
	(Common Clock Framework) or address (legacy clock framework) of the
	structure; '%pCr' prints the current clock rate.

	Passed by reference.

bitmap and its derivatives such as cpumask and nodemask:

	%*pb	0779
	%*pbl	0,3-6,8-10

	For printing bitmap and its derivatives such as cpumask and nodemask,
	%*pb output the bitmap with field width as the number of bits and %*pbl
	output the bitmap as range list with field width as the number of bits.

	Passed by reference.

Flags bitfields such as page flags, gfp_flags:

	%pGp	referenced|uptodate|lru|active|private
	%pGv	read|exec|mayread|maywrite|mayexec|denywrite

	For printing flags bitfields as a collection of symbolic constants that
	would construct the value. The type of flags is given by the third
	character. Currently supported are [p]age flags, [v]ma_flags (both
	expect unsigned long *) and [g]fp_flags (expects gfp_t *). The flag
	names and print order depends on the particular	type.

	Note that this format should not be used directly in TP_printk() part
	of a tracepoint. Instead, use the show_*_flags() functions from

	Passed by reference.

Network device features:

	%pNF	0x000000000000c000

	For printing netdev_features_t.

	Passed by reference.

If you add other %p extensions, please extend lib/test_printf.c with
one or more test cases, if at all feasible.

Thank you for your cooperation and attention.

By Randy Dunlap <> and
Andrew Murray <>