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	The hw_random framework is software that makes use of a
	special hardware feature on your CPU or motherboard,
	a Random Number Generator (RNG).  The software has two parts:
	a core providing the /dev/hwrng character device and its
	sysfs support, plus a hardware-specific driver that plugs
	into that core.

	To make the most effective use of these mechanisms, you
	should download the support software as well.  Download the
	latest version of the "rng-tools" package from the
	hw_random driver's official Web site:

	Those tools use /dev/hwrng to fill the kernel entropy pool,
	which is used internally and exported by the /dev/urandom and
	/dev/random special files.

Theory of operation:

	CHARACTER DEVICE.  Using the standard open()
	and read() system calls, you can read random data from
	the hardware RNG device.  This data is NOT CHECKED by any
	fitness tests, and could potentially be bogus (if the
	hardware is faulty or has been tampered with).  Data is only
	output if the hardware "has-data" flag is set, but nevertheless
	a security-conscious person would run fitness tests on the
	data before assuming it is truly random.

	The rng-tools package uses such tests in "rngd", and lets you
	run them by hand with a "rngtest" utility.

	/dev/hwrng is char device major 10, minor 183.

	CLASS DEVICE.  There is a /sys/class/misc/hw_random node with
	two unique attributes, "rng_available" and "rng_current".  The
	"rng_available" attribute lists the hardware-specific drivers
	available, while "rng_current" lists the one which is currently
	connected to /dev/hwrng.  If your system has more than one
	RNG available, you may change the one used by writing a name from
	the list in "rng_available" into "rng_current".


	Hardware driver for Intel/AMD/VIA Random Number Generators (RNG)
	Copyright 2000,2001 Jeff Garzik <>
	Copyright 2000,2001 Philipp Rumpf <>

About the Intel RNG hardware, from the firmware hub datasheet:

	The Firmware Hub integrates a Random Number Generator (RNG)
	using thermal noise generated from inherently random quantum
	mechanical properties of silicon. When not generating new random
	bits the RNG circuitry will enter a low power state. Intel will
	provide a binary software driver to give third party software
	access to our RNG for use as a security feature. At this time,
	the RNG is only to be used with a system in an OS-present state.

Intel RNG Driver notes:

	* FIXME: support poll(2)

	NOTE: request_mem_region was removed, for three reasons:
	1) Only one RNG is supported by this driver, 2) The location
	used by the RNG is a fixed location in MMIO-addressable memory,
	3) users with properly working BIOS e820 handling will always
	have the region in which the RNG is located reserved, so
	request_mem_region calls always fail for proper setups.
	However, for people who use mem=XX, BIOS e820 information is
	-not- in /proc/iomem, and request_mem_region(RNG_ADDR) can

Driver details:

	Based on:
	Intel 82802AB/82802AC Firmware Hub (FWH) Datasheet
		May 1999 Order Number: 290658-002 R

	Intel 82802 Firmware Hub: Random Number Generator
	Programmer's Reference Manual
		December 1999 Order Number: 298029-001 R

	Intel 82802 Firmware HUB Random Number Generator Driver
	Copyright (c) 2000 Matt Sottek <>

	Special thanks to Matt Sottek.  I did the "guts", he
	did the "brains" and all the testing.